Until 10-15 years ago when fiber to the home (FTTH) became possible, HFC (hybrid fiber coax CATV) with a cable modem was the best solution for broadband services. Internet service over the telephone network was very bad, and CATV companies did not have real competition. Because of that, all buildings had HFC installation.
Nowadays, the FTTH is the best access network which enables high quality broadband services. Today, every new building has FTTH installation. Telephone cables and coaxial cables are not installed. The installation process of FTTH installation is completed during the building construction process. In this way, ducts, pipes, cables, etc. are not visible. All of this equipment are in the wall.
One of the main problems with old buildings is high quality broadband services. In situations when tenants do not allow installation of a new FTTH network, telecommunication companies must use FTTx scenarios with old copper cables (telephone, coaxial, or UTP cables) with MoCA, G.fast, or G.hn technologies.
Usually, tenants do allow the installation of a new FTTH network. Then, telecommunication companies have to pay attention to neatness and quality. A bad installation can have a very bad company reputation, and very often, serious negative effects which can stop the next installation in another building.
In this article, We will show many bad examples of indoor construction in FTTH networks. Many telecommunication operators want to cut costs and use low-quality, incomplete, or inadequate equipment, as well as untrained low-paid staff. In these examples, the main problem is untrained or inexperienced staff.
In Figure 1, we can see multiple cables on the facade of the building. In this way, the aesthetic of the building is destroyed.
Figure 1 – Multiple cables on the facade of the building
In the next Figure, the poor installation of metal and plastic channels in the corridor of the building are shown. We can see cables, two holes in the floor, and channels that are not screwed in.
Figure 2 – The poor installation of metal and plastic channels in the corridor
Damage can often occur during the drilling of holes in the corridor. We can see that in the next two figures (Figures 3 and 4). Sometimes, the drill bit stuck in concrete while drilling in the corridor of the building.
Figure 3 – Damage in the corridor of the building
Figure 4 – Drill bit stuck in concrete
In the next two figures, we show incomplete and inadequate equipment in the optical distribution box. In the optical distribution box (Figure 5), there are ATBs (Access Terminal Box), which are used for an individual connection. In addition, outdoor drop cables with messenger wire (fig 8 or butterfly) are used.
Figure 5 – Inadequate equipment in the optical distribution box
Figure 6 shows an optical distribution box without optical cassettes. Electrical tape is used to hold the protector.
Figure 6 – Optical distribution box without optical cassettes
In the Figure 7, we can see inadequate way of installing the drop optic cable to the apartment.
Figure 7 – Inadequate way of installing the drop optic cable
In the next examples, we can see the incorrectly installed splice protector in the ATB (picture on the left) and a short drop cable due to which the ATB is about 2 m above the floor (picture on the right).
Figure 8 – Incorrectly installed ATB
The following figure (Figure 9) shows an improperly installed coaxial RG6 cable in the user's apartment. The cable is not fixed anywhere.
Figure 9 – Improperly installed coaxial RG6 cable
In Figure 10, there is user’s equipment in disarray. We can see ATB, optical splitter, mini node (for CATV service), bridge ONT, and wireless router. Without training and experience, another mistake appeared. High optical power was measured on the ATB, which is why the technician installed an optical splitter as an attenuator.
Figure 10 – User equipment in disarray
Finally, the user wanted to connect the RG6 cables himself, and then used an electrical cable connector.
Figure 11 – RG6 cable and electrical cable connector
Vladimir Grozdanovic is a graduate electrical engineer for telecommunications with more than 10 years of experience in access networks (HFC and FTTH) in large cable operators in Serbia (SBB and Jotel).
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