Update Page covers all the new technology and
applications we covered in this newsletter in 2018-19. Now you
can review all that new tech at once.
Fiber FAQs Page (FAQs = frequently asked questions)
gathers up questions readers have asked us (which first ran
in this newsletter) and adds tech topics of general
months "Good Questions" has some unique
questions from our readers.
Care of Your Fiber Optic Tools
is more frustrating that trying to accomplish a task and
having problems with your tools. It doesn’t matter whether it
is not being able to find a tool or finding a damaged tool put
back in the toolbox without being repaired or replaced, it is
ever noticed how careful automobile mechanics are with their
tools? The right tools are absolutely necessary for their work
and they know they must keep them in good condition and stored
in the tool’s proper location when not being used. Tools are
expensive - not just for mechanics but for fiber technicians
too - so learn how to use them correctly and take care of them
so they will work properly when you need them.
ever, go out on a job unless you have inspected your tools and
test equipment back in the office and verified your tool kit
is complete, your test equipment is working properly and you
have all the supplies and consumables you need.
corollary of this is never take new gear into the field until
you have tested it in the office and are familiar enough with
its use that you will not have problems in the field caused by
unfamiliarity with it. When I was in the fiber optic test
equipment business, it amazed us how many help calls we got
from customers who were at the job site and wanted to know how
to use the equipment!
more specific. Start with your tools. Clean off a table and
open your fiber optic tool kit. Are all the tools there? Grab
a notepad and list what you are missing. Even better create a
list of tools you need and use it as a checklist so you don’t
forget anything. In fact, I’ll include on the online version
of this article at http://www.ecmag.com a list of recommended
tools you can use as a checklist. And keep a copy of that list
in your toolkit for reference.
your tools are bulletproof, but some are delicate and/or wear
out. Check the condition of your fiber optic strippers and
scribes in particular. They both should be carefully cleaned
and inspected. Use a magnifying glass or loupe to check the
working areas. Then get some fiber and test them to make sure
they work properly. I recommend you have spares of these two
tools in your kit since they do wear out or can be damaged, so
spares are warranted.
equipment is battery powered, so having spare batteries and/or
keeping the batteries charged is important. Check the
condition of the batteries in each piece of gear, turn it on
and make sure it works properly. If your gear has adapters for
various fiber optic connectors, make certain that all those
adapters are there and kept in marked plastic bags to identify
and protect them. Find all your reference test cables and
of your reference test cables and use it to check the
operation of your connector inspection microscope. At the same
time, you will be checking the condition of the reference
cable connector. Does it look nice and clean and free from
scratches? Reference test cables wear out after hundreds of
tests, even when you clean them regularly, so use the
microscope to check the condition of every connector on every
reference cable and set aside those which look questionable.
your light source and power meter to test all those reference
cables. Use a single-ended insertion loss test to determine if
they are still in good condition, with a loss of well under
0.5 dB, and discard the bad ones or set them aside for
re-termination. If you have a checklist, keep track of the
loss and watch how the loss will increase as they are used
more and more. If you have an OTDR and associated launch
cables for it also, use the light source and power meter to
check them too.
Finally, check all your cleaning supplies. Make sure you have
enough for the next job. If not, add that to your notepad list
of things to order ASAP. Don’t wait until the next job comes
up; order all the replacement tools and supplies you need now
and be ready.
Cities? Cutting Through The Hype
readers know, we've been trying to cut through the hype about
many subjects to try to determine what is real and what can be
expected to actually happen that affects the fiber optic
industry. From Xaqt, a company that helps customers manage data,
sent out three end of the year newsletters offering something
that's rare in tech, someone cutting through the hype and
telling it like it is - or how they see it. Refreshing. Here are
End of Smart Cities
For several months now, I've been hearing speculation and
grumblings amongst technology companies about the unwinding of
the Smart Cities industry. And evidence is mounting that most
Cities are quietly doing the same.
are the days of flashy press releases and cities jockeying
to be the "Smartest".
corporations that were talking a big game and paying loads
of money to sponsor conferences have restructured their
solutions portfolio and dropped the Smart Cities moniker in
favor of focusing on their core business (Xaqt
hype that was Columbus Smart City went exactly nowhere. Same
with many other high profile initiatives.
vendors that are still talking about Smart Cities are only
talking about the same handful of City deployments that they
have been for years.
City of Kansas City, MO, who was arguably patient zero for
Smart Cities in the US back in 2014 with their Cisco/Sprint
partnership, has officially eliminated their Office of
Innovation in favor of an "Emerging Technologies Board"
(after killing the "mother of all Smart City RFPs" earlier
isn't going to save the world any more than parking sensors
Have we seen peak Smart Cities?
Yes, we've seen the peak. No one has scaled or found
repeatability in the market. Not Cisco, not Verizon, not
AT&T, not Accenture, not Xaqt. No one. The companies that
have found success are those that dropped the Smart City moniker
and are focused on solving acute problems instead of market
- 5G -
This will be more fizzle than sizzle. If the large telecom
providers (cough, Verizon/T-Mobile) need to spend millions
of dollars in advertising to convince you that you need
something, then be wary... There will be pockets of promise
emerge, but in a world where many still lack access to even
basic high speed internet, I'm not optimistic that 5G will
revolutionize anything this year other than maybe some Super
Cities - As I've said, this will transition to Digital
Cities and Digital Transformation of Government.
Cities - a Managed Approach.
we transition from the end of Smart Cities and technology driven
agendas into Digital Cities where technology supports policy, I
believe it's important to evaluate what we've learned and take a
fresh approach moving forward.
In Smart Cities, technology became the agenda with objectives
and outcomes being loosely defined, if at all. However, if we
simply reverse the concept, we end-up with the notion that
technology should support City and government priorities and
objectives. Not the other way around.
Thus we enter a new era of Digital Cities where well designed
and measured initiatives can yield tangible benefits to
governments and their constituents.
All three are really worth reading!
Wars - New Battlefronts
Telcos in 5G Street Light Fight (Light
origin of our series on "Pole Wars was the battle between
incumbent service providers and Google Fiber. Now a new battle
is brewing over the poles.
wireless network operators like AT&T and Verizon are
hungrily eying your neighborhood street light as the perfect
home for their 5G small cell transmitters. After all, those
light poles already offer a reliable source of electricity, and
they're often located in just the right place to push 5G signals
into your home or office.
There's just one big problem: The street light might fall over
if the small cell is too heavy.
"The vast majority of street lights are not structurally capable
of supporting wireless communications facilities, thus requiring
the complete replacement of the street light structure in order
to accommodate wireless," Xcel and Southern Company -- two of
the nation's biggest utilities -- wrote in a filing to the FCC
on the topic."
But the battle may really be over revenue for small cell sites.
the article in Light Reading - some of the links are very
On Damage Prevention For Utilities
is now open!
will be talking about "New Construction Techniques In
811 Excavation Safety Conference & Expo is the
premiere international event in the damage prevention industry.
This event has featured education to help all stakeholder
groups, and opportunities to network with industry peers, learn
safe practices, and lower costs associated with underground
Put this conference on your calendar - the focus is safety in
March 8-12, Exhibits 10-12, San Diego California
With nearly 15,000 attendees from 65 countries and more than 700
exhibits, OFC is the year's largest conference for the optical
communications and networking industry. It is the premier event
where you can learn about the latest research breakthroughs,
innovations and see the newest commercial products. Admission to
the exhibits is free, but be sure to look at all the conference
sessions and educational courses.
for Free Exhibit Pass and conference sessions at the OFC
This is the
FOA Board of Advisors 20 years ago, meeting to work on FOA
will be 25 years old in July - watch for more articles on FOA
Reading - News Summary
month we read hundreds of emails and online articles. These
are the ones we think you will find "worth reading."
End of Smart Cities, 2020
Cities - a Managed Approach. From Xaqt, a
company that helps customers manage data, read something
that's rare in tech, someone cutting through the hype and
telling it like it is - or how they see it
OFS Manufactures Optical Fiber While OFS is well
known as a leader in fiber optics, some people do not realize
that our company is also a global manufacturer of award-winning,
world-class optical fibers. In fact, OFS, through its
predecessor companies, was actually one of the first optical
fiber manufacturers in the world. We invite you to tour our
Norcross, Georgia, fiber manufacturing facilities by viewing our
latest video. (This is from the OFS
"Optical Pulse" newsletter, wihich has several very
interesting articles and product announcements. Worth reading!)
want to help heartland cities compete for tech jobs. Their
plan costs $100 billion. - The Washington Post
Million Phones, One Dataset, Zero Privacy - The New
What does your cell phone reveal about you?
Why It Might Be Time to Worry About mmWave 5G
Neither AT&T nor Verizon has offered any specificity around
their 5G millimeter-wave (mmWave) buildout plans for 2020.
Trump's New 5G Czar - Robert Blair the US's
new "Special Representative for International Telecommunications
Policy," where he will be responsible for supporting the
administration's 5G efforts. However, Blair has no discernible
background in telecommunications.
need to rethink where they put cell towers -
Futurity - Placing cell towers 500 meters (1,640 feet)
away from schools and hospitals could save companies trouble
down the road, researchers at Michigan Tech report.
Wants to 'Build a New Internet' for 5G - Cisco
rolled out a revamp of its end-to-end networking portfolio on
Wednesday, including new silicon, optics and
software that, the company proclaims, will carry the Internet
through the next decade.
Internet Provider Likely Juiced Its Official Speed Scores
- AT&T, Cox, Comcast and other broadband companies succe
Fiber Optic Cleaning Videos From Sticklers
three-part training video series covers some of the most
important practices to consider when cleaning fiber.
could change the world. 5G is also marketing hype.
80% marketing and 20% technology,” said Gigi Sohn, a
senior fellow at the Georgetown Law Institute for Technology Law
& Policy. “The hype around this technology is enormous, and
also the hype around needing to win a so-called race around
the internet didn’t turn out the way we hoped. The
NY Times devoted an entire Sunday Magazine to the Internet
4G Maps Are Rubbish, but FCC Chief Proposes $9B for 5G
Commission dispatched Enforcement Bureau field agents to conduct
speed tests of the Verizon, U.S. Cellular and T-Mobile
networks," the FCC
wrote in its 66-page report.
Quietly Moves Its 5G Goalposts.
is informing reviewers and customers that its new lowband 5G
network will be on average 20% faster than its 4G LTE network.
Rolls Out 5G on Multiple Frequencies
AT&T announced last week that they will
roll-out their 5G mobile service in select markets this year
using low-band 850 MHz spectrum. AT&T has offered
guidance that its low-band 850 MHz 5G can reach about 2 miles,
and the 5G+ in comparison, has a range of roughly 1,000 feet.
a White-Collar Career Without College Debt? Become an
Apprenticeships probably began with the first jobs, where
young people work under experienced craftspeople to learn a
trade. In the last century, they became more organized under
labor unions like the International Brotherhood of Electrical
Workers, one of the FOA's oldest and biggest approved school
systems. Today, apprenticeships are expanding as young people
look at viable alternatives to loading themselves with debt
while attending college.
OFS Makes Fiber
Interesting YouTube video on how fiber is made. Perhaps a little
too much "show biz" but fascinating. If you have ever seen fiber
manufacture, look at this video. You will be amazed at how big
preforms have become!
Legislative Initiatives to Restrict Low-Voltage
Contractors and Integrators From Installing Equipment,
Cabling and Infrastructure.
True Cost of Telco Damages (what backhoe fade or
target practice can cost)
Electric Cooperatives: Pole Attachment Policies and Issues,
Certification Training Clearfield is now
offering their customers an FOA
CERTIFICATION course. This course provides a
basic understanding of fiber optic technology, as well as
Clearfield product knowledge and how Clearfield’s integrated
product systems work together in a fiber network.
Contractors - Fiber Optic Knowledge Doesn't Always Trickle
Down (EC Mag)
Source Of Articles On Fiber
President and editor of this newsletter Jim Hayes has also been
writing a column in Electrical
Contractor Magazine for almost 20 years now. Electrical
contractors do lots of fiber work and this column has covered
some topics they are interested in including installation
processes, network design, fiber applications and a lengthy
series on dark fiber - what it is, how's its used and how it
benefits the growth of communication. A recent web site redesign
makes it easier to browse all these articles - just go to http://www.ecmag.com/contributing-authors/jim-hayes
and you can see all of them.
Video Microscope For Fast MPO Inspection
AFL’s new FOCIS Lightning is an ultrafast compact multifiber
inspection system that is 10 to 100 times faster than other
solutions. One button push auto-focuses, captures & performs
pass/fail analysis and stores up to 10,000 images. Share results
via USB, Bluetooth® or WiFi.
is the datasheet on the product.
Update In FOA Guide
updated its page on FTTH PON protocols to include the latest
standards for 10GPONs. There are three standards, NG-PON2,
XG-PON and XGS-PON. As is common with all communications
networks, work on upgradeing network capability and speed starts
as soon as a network is introduced and PONs are no exception.
GPON has been the most widely used PON scheme for both FTTx
netowrks and passive optical LANs (OLANs) and GPON has been
upgraded to several versions with higher transmission speeds and
higher power budgets to allow greater distance, higher split
capability, or both. The assumption is that a fiber network has
a lifetime of up to 40 years, so upgrades to GPON have assumed
that they will use the same passive optical network architecture
and fiber type (G.652 singlemode.)
Furthermore, upgrades have been designed around coexistence with
current GPON networks. By utilizing different wavelengths, it is
possible to have these newer, faster networks sharing the same
passive optical network as the original GPON system, allowing
offering higher speeds to users while continuing to serve
current users without disruption. Some commercial users can take
advantage of higher speeds while typical consumers are well
served by GPON. One of the big advantages of the PON upgrade
standards is the ability to overlay networks. Thus a city could
operate one regular GPON network for consumer FTTH use and have
another, faster network operating on the same cable plant
independently, offering a higher level of service and security.
PON Protocols in the FOA Guide.
Lennie Lightwave's Guide - 25th Anniversary Edition
Lightwave's Guide" on its 25th anniversary in a special
Many of you have used the current online version of Lennie's
Guide on the FOA website. Now you can have a slick printed
version - real paper - you can hold in your hand and read. Leave
a copy on your desktop to impress your friends, or on the table
in your company's reception area instead of out-of-date
magazines. Give them to your customers and employees to help
them learn fiber optics. Use it to prepare for FOA
certifications. FOA will be giving them away at conferences like
the IMSA Annual Conference in New Orleans later this summer.
You can get your own copies of Lennie
Lightwave's Guide at Amazon.com, only $9.95US.
Look At Connector Contamination
Teague of Senko
Advanced Components sent us the results of an interesting
experiment he ran to show an unusual effect of the contamination
on a connector. He started with a clean SC/UPC singlemode
jumper, shown in the 400X image to the left. Then he connected
it to a 1310nm laser test source and measured the power out of
the fiber with a fiber optic power meter. Then he disconnected
the connector from the meter, touched the end to his finger,
contaminating the end of the ferrule as you can see in the image
on the right.
But then he connected the dirty connector to the meter and
measured the power again. The power was decreased by 0.22dB.
Yes, the contamination on the connector acted as an attenuator
to reduce the power considerably. Think what would happen if you
them mated it to another connector. Not only would you see the
attenuation caused by the contamination, you will probably see
even more loss caused by the gap created by the flakes of skin.
That's why you should inspect, clean and inspect again to ensure
all connectors are clean before testing or making connections.
continually updating the Online Reference Guide to keep up with
changes in the industry and adding lots of new pages of
technical information. When you go to the FOA
Guide Table of Contents to see the latest updates - look
Protocols in the FOA Guide. 10GPON
Update In FOA Guide
Fiber Optic Jargon, OSP
Optic Jargon and Fiber
Optic Jargon for managers.
has a new page on Restoration
Characterization page in the FOA Guide goes in to more
depth on why fiber characterization is important, what tests
need performing and how to interpret results.
Practically every page in the section of the FOA Guide on Fiber
Optic Testing has been reviewed and updated, much of it based on
the new FOA textbook on testing. This includes pages on
measuring power, fiber attenuation, connector or splice loss and
cable plant loss. Browse
through the testing section and see what's new.
started with a page in the FOA Guide on Fiber
Optic Network Management that describes what our advisors
think is important and created a page to introduce them to the
language and technology of fiber optics which we call "Fiber
Optic Jargon - Illustrated." Over time, we'll be expanding
this section and create a Fiber U self-study course also.
created a new section of the FOA
Guide on OSP
and Cleaning Connectors.
connectors are one of the major problems in fiber optics,
causing high connector loss, high reflectance and contaminating
transceivers. Network operators claim that 15-50% of all network
problems can be traced to dirty connectors causing connection
Guide section on inspecting and cleaning connectors.
FOA Online Fiber Optic Reference Guide.
School Offers Toolkit With Online Training
Solutions (FOA Approved School #156) is offering a simple
fiber optic tool kit that includes a 29-piece set of fiber
optic tools and a power meter along with training videos and
online instruction for only $499. 29 Piece Kit includes all
tools and devices a technician needs to install fiber optic
connectors and test optical power. Information
on the kit is available on YouTube.
You can contact them for more information at
FiberNext Job Board And Savings Club For CFOTs
Approved School FiberNext
has created an online job board for fiber techs and a special
"savings club" for CFOTs.
Job Board was designed to help connect employers with fiber
technicians and other fiber optic professionals. It is a place
where employers in the fiber optic market can post job
openings and a place where fiber optic professionals can post
that they are looking for employment. Please feel free to post
an opening or browse for your next job or employee. https://fibernext.com/job_board.php
FiberNext, besides being an FOA approved school is also a
distributor. FiberNext invites FOA CFOT®s to join the “FiberNext
CFOT® Club to get special savings on selected fiber optic
products. Visit https://fibernext.com/cfot_club.php to
sign up today ”
Fiber Optic Cable
received this note from Steve Maginnis, LD4Recycle/ CommuniCom
Recycling on recycling fiber optic cable:
We have 3 Processors gearing up to accept fiber optic
cable (FOC). As we all know, all FOC is not the same. Several
truckloads of “typical” FOC scrap from FOC mfgrs and “typical”
FOC and Coax cable have been studied and tested.
Therefore, today you can begin contacting me with the type FOC
material or scrap you toss to the landfills today. We need to
quantify the expected feedstock. Our expectation for quantities
is quite large (tons) but there is a capacity limit. And I do
have several processors that can take ALL materials and others
that can accept LIMITED types of FOC material and quantity.
LD4Recycle/ CommuniCom Recycling
(Visit our new
On The Job
the most important part of any job. Installers need to
understand the safety issues to be safe. An excellent guide to
analyzing job hazards is from OSHA, the US Occupational Safety
and Health Administration. Here
is a link to their guide for job hazard analysis.
FOA also has lots of information on safety: FOA
video and a Safety
Practices Guide For Underground Construction
you are familiar with the "One Call" and "Call Before You Dig"
(811) program, but are you also familiar with the people behind
it - the Common Ground Alliance and their Best Practices
is a member-driven association of 1,700 individuals,
organizations and sponsors in every facet of the underground
utility industry. Established in 2000, CGA is committed to
saving lives and preventing damage to underground
infrastructure by promoting effective damage prevention
practices. CGA has established itself as the leading
organization in an effort to reduce damages to underground
facilities in North America through shared responsibility
among all stakeholders.
formed in 2000, the CGA represents a continuation of the
damage prevention efforts embodied by the Common
Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation and
completed in 1999, this Study represents the collaborative
work of 160 industry professionals who identified best
practices relating to damage prevention. Any
best practice or program endorsed by the CGA comes with
consensus support from experts representing the following
stakeholder groups: Excavators, Locators, Road Builders,
Electric, Telecommunications, Oil, Gas Distribution, Gas
Transmission, Railroad, One Call, Public Works, Equipment
Manufacturing, State Regulators, Insurance, Emergency
Services and Engineering/Design.
the CGA Best Practices Guide here.
are all the CGA resources for damage prevention.
The word on
the "Dig Once" program is getting out - FOA is getting calls
from cities asking us for information and advice. It helps that
the current Administration is trying to convince cities of the
advantages of installing ducts or conduits when they dig up a
street so they don't have to do it again. Here are some links
for more information.
The DoT page on the administration’s Executive Order: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policy/otps/exeorder.cfm
From the Council of State governments: http://www.csg.org/pubs/capitolideas/enews/cs41_1.aspx
From the city of San Francisco: http://sfgov.org/dt/dig-once
An article about Dakota County, MN: https://muninetworks.org/tags/tags/dig-once
the one to download and hand out:
A “How To” Guide from The Global Connect Initiative: https://share.america.gov/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/6.-GCI-Dig-Once.pdf
have contacts give us online links for useful information which
we like to share with our readers. Here are two:
We Warn You To Be Careful About Fiber Shards
Photo courtesy Brian Brandstetter, Mississauga
FOA is a
non-profit professional association chartered to promote
professionalism in fiber optics through education, certification
and standards. FOA is mostly known for certifying techs -
-Certified Fiber Optic Technicians - but also may be CPCTs -
Certified Premises Cabling Technicians or corporate
members involved in fiber optics.
FOA is a "virtual organization" - we have no "brick and mortar"
presence. We operate over the Internet with operations centered
in California, with active workers and volunteers in locations
as diverse as Texas, Ohio, Canada, Singapore, Malaysia, Denmark,
South Africa, the Middle East and many more.
Being a virtual organization, FOA has very low overhead,
allowing us to offer cost-effective certifications and many free
programs to support our industry.
As of today, FOA has certified this many techs. About 90% come
from our schools but many experienced techs have become FOA
CFOT-certified directly through our "Work-to-Cert"
FOA has almost 200 approved training organizations in about 40
countries around the world around the world.
Certifications Now Last For 3-Years
in 2019, all FOA certifications issued or renewed will be for a
period of 3 years. Most certification bodies worldwide have
standardized on 3 year certifications. FOA has been working with
a number of organizations that use our programs but have
standardized on 3 year certifications. FOA has decided that it
is time to change our policies to align with the majority of
Remember that FOA certification renewals include all the
certifications one individual has for one price. FOA does not
charge for any additional certifications, so, for example, if a
CFOT also has specialist certifications like the CFOS/T or
CFOS/S, they are included at no additional cost when the basic
certification is renewed.
FOA has 14
fiber optic certification programs covering every aspect
of fiber optic network design, installation and operation.
Certifications: CFOT (basic fiber), CPCT (premises cabling),
CFOS/O (outside plant, taught with CFOT included) and CFOS/D
(fiber optic network design).
Skills Certifications (for installers and techs, requires
CFOT): CFOS/S (splicing), CFOS/C (connectors/termination),
CFOS/T (testing), CFOS/FC (fiber characterization).
Applications Certifications (for techs or anyone, including
managers and supervisors): FTTH (fiber to the home), CFOS/L
(optical LANs), CFOS/DC (data centers), CFOS/A (fiber to the
antenna), CFOS/DAS (distributed antenna systems) and CFOS/W
(fiber for wireless)
(what you are reading)
FOA monitors the trade press, websites and other
resources continually to look at what's happening in many
technologies that affect fiber optics. We're tracing
technologies as diverse as wireless, IoT, autonomous vehicles,
smart cities, energy, or anywhere fiber is used to bring news to
FOA continually updates our technical materials, online and
printed, and our curriculum to ensure our readers have access to
the latest technical information and our schools teach the
latest technology and applications. Our printed books are being
updated right now.
FOA created the
FOA Online Guide as a non-commercial trustworthy technical
reference almost a decade ago so the industry would have a
reliable technical reference. In the last year, over 1million
visitors downloaded about 4 million pages of technical
FOA offers free online self-study programs at Fiber
U. In 2017, the number of online sessions doubled to
200,000. Many of those are preparing for FOA certification
programs - taking courses at our schools or using the "Work-to-Cert"
program. Some of our schools are requiring Fiber U programs as
prerequisites for their classroom courses so they can spend more
time on hands-on activities.
FOA offers over 100 educational YouTube
videos that have been viewed 2.4 million times.
FOA offers its training programs to other organizations at no
cost to help them train their members properly in fiber optics.
For example, FOA has been working with the Electrical Training
Alliance (IBEW/NECA) for over 20 years, training their
instructors for their apprenticeship programs. We work with many
other organizations and companies to provide the materials they
FOA has about 300 corporate
members - companies in various aspects of the fiber optic
industry worldwide that we list online and offer discounts on
certifications and renewals.
FOA provides speakers for many conferences and even
presentations for use by other organizations to educate people
on the aspects of fiber optic communications.
FOA has a program to provide classroom
materials for STEM
teachers (science, technology, engineering and math)
introducing K-12 students to fiber optics and creating science
FOA provides forums for discussion on various social media. Our
LinkedIn groups have about 5,000 members each. If you are not
joining us on social media yet, please do.
In A Career In Fiber Optics?
FOA has created a new YouTube video to introduce students to
careers in fiber optics. It was made for showing to high school
and junior high students interested in tech careers but anyone
interested in a possible career in this field will find it
interesting. If you have kids in school or know teachers, let
them know about this too. Watch the FOA
Careers In Fiber Optics Video on YouTube and visit the FOA
Careers In Fiber Optics web page at www.foa.org/careers/.
Optic Education For Students At Any Age
about fiber optics all the time - it's in the news whenever we
hear articles about high tech, the Internet and communications,
and many communities are getting "fiber to the home." But few
people really understand fiber optics or how it works. FOA is
focused on educating the workforce that installs and operates
these fiber optic networks but we're always getting inquiries
from STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) teachers
who want to introduce fiber optics to younger students in K-12
grades or technical schools.
start with the FOA
Careers In Fiber Optics Video on YouTube and visit the FOA
Careers In Fiber Optics web page at www.foa.org/careers/.
These are for students who think they might be interested in
careers in fiber optics and want to know more about what fiber
Using red laser light (a VFL here but a laser pointer works
also) to show how fiber guides light.
FOA has begun developing a series of YouTube videos intended for
teaching students in elementary, middle and high schools about
fiber optics. The first FOA video is titled "Fiber
Optics For Teachers." With this video, we show teachers
how fiber works and carries signals and then explains simple
experiments to demonstrate how fiber optics works in the
classroom using some plastic fiber and a laser pointer. Since
many teachers do not know where to get the fiber, the FOA offers
to send them a sample for use in demonstrations in their
classroom (USA only right now.)
At the end of the video, teachers are given directions on how to
request samples of the plastic fiber from the FOA.
This video joins the "Fiber Optics Live" series How
Light Travels In A Fiber, Fiber
Attenuation and Connector
Loss that show how fiber works using simple experiments
that can be duplicated in any classroom. More videos will be
If you have kids or know some teachers who would be interested,
please send them to the introductory video Fiber
Optics For Teachers and we'll be glad to help them
get started with some entertaining programs for their
For Teachers In K-12 And Technical Schools
Teachers in all grades can introduce their students to fiber
optic technology with some simple demonstrations. FOA has
created a page for STEM or STEAM (science, technology,
and math) teachers with materials appropriate to their
classes. Fiber Optic
Resources For Teachers.
you have kids in school or know teachers who are interested,
send them to the FOA page Fiber
Optic Resources For Teachers.
Your Company Become An FOA Corporate Member?
As all FOA
members know, they join the FOA by becoming certified,
mostly taking their CFOTs but some CPCTs, either by
attending a FOA approved school or joining directly based on
field experience (our "work to cert" program.) Over the years,
we've been contacted by manufacturers, contractors, consultants,
and other types of organizations who ask about becoming members.
We don't certify companies or organizations, we told them, so we
were not sure what we could offer as a benefit of membership.
But then, companies asked about using our educational programs
to train employees, how they could get listed on the FOA website
as service providers or if they could get a quantity discount on
membership or certification for all the FOA members working for
them. That began to sound like a benefit for being an FOA
corporate member. And providing a list of useful suppliers to
the market could be a benefit to the industry as a whole.
So FOA has quietly been letting companies and other
organizations join the FOA to take advantage of those benefits
so we now have several hundred corporate members. We've put then
into a database and listed them on the FOA website in map
form. Here's the map.
The online map
can be used to find suppliers and service providers.
The map, like our map of schools, lets you find the FOA
corporate members close to you. The table form lists them
by category: Installer/Contractor, Component Manufacturer,
Installation Equip. Manufacturer, Transmission Equipment,
Services/Consulting, Distribution and Users of Fiber Optic
Networks. You can sort the tables to find members meeting your
needs, e.g. by location, certifications offered, etc. Click on
any column heading to sort that column; click twice to sort in
Does An Organization Become An FOA Corporate Member?
just fill in the online
application form. When your application is accepted, you
will be asked to pay the one time membership fee - $100US. You
will then be listed on the online
have access to exclusive FOA educational materials for your
employees and get discounts on certifications and
now posts events on our LinkedIn groups, Facebook page and
other social media
has a company page and three LinkedIn Groups
- official company page on LinkedIn
- covers FOA, technology and jobs in the fiber optic marketplace
Fiber Optic Training - open to all, covers fiber optic
technology and training topics
de La Asociación de Fibra Óptica FOA (Español)
FOA offers free standards for datalinks and testing the
installed fiber optic cable plant, patchcords and cable, optical
power from transmitters or at receivers and OTDR testing. Look
for the "1
PageStandard" web page and in the FOA Online Reference
301 Fiber Optic Installation Standard
cover components and systems and how to test them, but rarely
get into installation issues. The FOA NECA 301 standard which
covers installation of optical fiber systems has been revised
for the second time, adding considerable new materials. This
standard is derived from FOA educational material put in
standards form and approved by ANSI as an American National
Standard. It's specifically written to be used in contracts to
define "installation in a neat and workmanlike manner." The
standard is available from NECA.
FOA members can go
here for instructions on how to download your free copy.
Fiber U Self-Study Programs
"Fiber U" free online self-study programs help you learn about
fiber optics, study for FOA certifications or use them to help
create "blended learning" classes. There are two new free online
self-study programs on Fiber
U. Fiber Optic Network Design is for those interested in
learning more about how to design fiber optic networks or
studying for the CFOS/D certification. FTTx is for those wanting
to know more about fiber to the "x" - curb, home, wireless, etc.
- or studying for the CFOS/H certification.
Got to Fiber U
for more information.
Online Self-Study Programs Offer Certificates of Completion
been offering quite a few free online self-study programs on Fiber
U, our online learning site. We are always getting
questions about getting a certificate for completing the course
online, so we have setup an option to take a test online and get
a certificate of completion for these online courses.
While it's not FOA certification, FOA will recognize a Fiber
U Certificate of Completion as background experience to
qualify for applying for FOA certifications. We also intend to
expand the program to more specialized topics as preparation
for FOA specialist certifications.
If you have associates that want to get started in fiber,
have them take this course online to get started. Go to Fiber
U and get started.
Books And Publications
Many textbooks are behind the technology because they are
rarely updated. FOA really keeps our textbooks up to date. We
did a major update a year ago and another was just completed.
The The FOA
Reference Guide To Fiber Optics has been updated
to reflect new components like OM5 fiber, testing for fiber
characterization and more information on installation.
Reference Guide To Outside Plant FIber Optics
has been expanded to include an extensive section on outside
plant construction taken from Joe Botha's
OSP Construction Guide textbook. This additional
material is being added to support the new FOA CFOS/O OSP
tech certification program which now includes of OSP
Basic Fiber Optic Textbook Available in French and Spanish
de Diseño para Redes de Fibra Óptica en
Español - FOA
Design Book Available In Spanish Online
FOA has translated the FOA Guide To Fiber
Optic Network Design book and made it available online to
those studying for the CFOS/D Certification but whose native
language is Spanish. You
can access the Spanish translation of the Design book here.
A printed version will be available in the near future.
& Uncle Ted Guides - Perfect For Getting Started
Ted's Guides have moved to the FOA website.
Lennie is the place where many if not most fiber techs
begin their education. FOA has just updated the two
guides to ensure they stay relevant - more than 20 years
after they were first written.
Lennie goes all the way back to 1993 when he was created
as the mascot of the original "Fiber U" conference - the
same Fiber U that is now the FOA's web-based training
Lightwave's Guide To Fiber Optics was created
as a beginner's introduction to fiber optics. Over
60,000 printed version of Lennie's Guide were given away
and it became one of the first commercial web pages in
1994. Uncle Ted's
Guide To Communications Cabling was written a
few years later to introduce techs to "Cat 5" - UTP
wiring - that had only recently been standardized in
Lennie and Ted's Guides are used in the current Fiber U
online self-study programs and are still the best place
to start learning about fiber optics.
Ted's Guides are online at the links here, can be
downloaded as printable PDFs and are now also available
as free iBooks on iTunes.
Lightwave's Guide to Fiber Optics and
Ted's Guide To Communications Cabling
are now available free to iPad users who can download them from
the Apple iTunes store. Of course they are still available
online or for download.
You can also find these free guides on the FOA website - go here
for all the links: Lennie
Lightwave's Guide to Fiber Optics and Uncle
Ted's Guide To Communications Cabling
Download PDFs of Lennie
or Uncle Ted.
LossCalc estimates the optical loss of a fiber optic link. This
will save time for the installer of a fiber optic link needing
to know whether test results are reasonable and/or make a
"pass/fail" determination. It can also help the designer of a
link to determine if communications equipment will operate over
By choosing the type of link (singlemode or multimode) and
specifying the length of the fiber and numbers of connections
and splices, it will calculate the end to end loss of the link.
The app has default specifications for singlemode and multimode
links or the user may create custom setups with specifications
appropriate for any application. http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/foa-losscalc/id476262894?mt=8&ls=1
FOA has many videos on ,
including two Lecture Series (Fiber Optics and Premises
Cabling), Hands-On lectures on both and some other informational
and instructional videos. For all the videos, go
to the FOA Channel "thefoainc" or use the direct links
a complete list of FOA Videos with links to each video on
The Jobs In Fiber Optics? FOA talks about all the
applications for fiber optics, what jobs involve and the
qualifications for the workers in the field.
Optics - Live! A
series of videos that use lab demonstrations to show how
optical fiber works.
Project Management - what's involved in a
copper/fiber/wireless project -advice for the customer and the
Of Counterfeit Cable
have read the stories we have written about the counterfeit
"Cat 5" cable made from copper-clad aluminum rather than pure
copper. Recently we tried an unscientific burn test on the
cable compared to a known good UL tested cable and posted a
video on YouTube. You can see the results below.
Cable Real UL-rated cable
difference is obvious and the danger is real. Watch the video
on YouTube: Premises
Cabling Lecture 11: Counterfeit Cat 5 Cabling
complete list of FOA Videos with links to each video on
all the FOA Channel on YouTube.
Communications Technologies, FOA
Approved School #378.
a listing of all the FOA-Approved schools here.
Find An FOA-Approved Training
inquiries we get regarding finding a FOA-Approved training
organization want to know two things: what school is closest to
me or what school offers the certifications I need. The FOA has
about 200 training organizations we have approved worldwide so
finding the right one can be difficult! We've been looking at
ways to make it easier, and we think we've got a good solution.
In fact we have two solutions.
First we have added a sortable
table of all the FOA-Approved schools.
You can also use our FOA
Google Map to find FOA-Approved schools.
Should A Fiber Optics or Cabling Tech Know and What Skills Do
certifications are based on our KSAs - the Knowledge, Skills and
Abilities that techs need to succeed. Read the FOA KSAs
for fiber and cabling techs.
enjoy feedback, especially when it shows how great some FOA
instructors are. These came from students of Tom Rauch, an
instructor at BDI
"I took your fiber optics certification courses this past March.
I just wanted to let you know that in two weeks I start working
as a fiber optic technician with ___ up in ___. You mentioned on
the first day of the course that there is always one guy in
class who had rubbed his last two nickels together to be there
and, in that instance, I was that guy. Now I'm going to be able
to provide for my family like never before and I owe it to the
certification that I received from you and BDI Datalynk. I just
wanted to thank you again."
"Thanks to our tremendously knowledgeable and patient instructor
Thomas Rauch, who was not only generous in sharing his wealth of
information, but he did so with ease, humor and in a way that
invited curiosity and participation. He was encouraging and
proud of our accomplishments and helped us learn from our
mistakes in a way that did not break our confidence, rather it
pushed us to better results the next go around. The hands on
labs were just AWESOME!" Just thought you should know what a
class act you have representing you in his travels..... but then
again you probably already knew that! : )
In almost 19 years at Verizon and having held numerous
positions, I have gone through many training sessions. I cannot
remember ever having been actually looking forward to coming
back to class quickly after lunch, to get back to the hands on
activities, and walking away with the sense of empowerment that
the information presented was not only relevant but dead on
point accurate! I will be signing up for the Outside Plant class
on March! I can't say enough good things about Tom and his
impact! Feel free to quote me, I can only imagine that he will
open so many doors and change so many lives in the years to
come, with his style of teaching! Great experience, awesome job!"
and FOA Partner on Fiber Optic Training
International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (IBEW) and the
National Electrical Contractors Association(NECA) through the
National Joint Apprenticeship and Training Committee
a partnership with the FOA has published a new textbook for
training IBEW apprentices and journeymen in fiber optics. The
new textbook uses the material from the FOA Reference Guide To
Fiber Optics with new material and photos from other NJATC
from one of our certified instructors: I want to thank
you and your organization for all the resources you provide for
the students and the opportunity to offer the certification to
the students. The fact that you published the book yourself to
get the cost down and the unlimited free resources on your
website shows a commitment to the public that is second to none.
I let it be known to the students that the FOA is the best in
the industry at supplying knowledge and resources related to the
communication industry. I look forward to passing on the
information that you provide for the industry.
Question! Tech Questions/Comments Worth Repeating
The FOA Fiber FAQs
Page (FAQ s = frequently asked questions) gathers up
questions readers have asked us and adds tech topics of
From FOA Newsletter Readers
Choice for LANs
Q: Many manufacturers or suppliers worldwide emphasize the
use of OM4 multimode optical fiber for the LAN. Does single-mode
fiber not provide greater bandwidth than multimode? Do they
imply that single mode optical fiber should only be used for
long distance applications and not in LAN environments?
A: Multimode fiber is acceptable for LANs up to 10
gigabits/second and up to 550 meters depending on the type of
fiber and Ethernet version. See this
page for a complete list of network specifications.Higher
versions of multimode fiber OM2-OM3-OM4 have higher bandwidth
capability. OM5 is a version of MO4 that also supports
wavelength division multiplexing with VCSEL sources in the
extended wavelength 850-950nm range. OM1 is a earlier fiber with
a different core size that has not been designed into new
systems for almost 20 years. LANs can use singlemode fiber for
all versions. Singlemode has longer distance capability (up to
40km) and virtually infinite bandwidth. See the singlemode
specification in the link above. Singlemode is also used in
passive optical LANs that can be much cheaper to build than
conventional networks. See this
page for information on optical LANs (OLANs)
including passive OLANs based on FTTH GPON technology.
Pigtails do not have a connector on one end so that makes OTDR
testing more justifiable. Clean connector, mate to connector on
long reference cable, check connection and length. OLTS testing
would require using bare fiber adapter or temporary splice and
might not be very accurate.
A customer said he said he would test 100 foot pigtails with
OTDR. I question that practice and think OLTS Tier 1 and
microscope test for defects,
What Is A Ring Network?
Q: If according to the TIA or ISO structured cabling
standards the fiber optic campus backbone must be
star-hierarchical type, how should a fiber optic "ring" be
built? to always ensure connectivity on a LAN?
A: A “ring” network consists of a series of links
connecting equipment (nodes) in series until the last one
connects back to the first. Since the links are communicate in
both directions, the network can still operate if any one
cabling link or equipment fails. Today, survivability is usually
ensured by using a “mesh” network; the architecture of data
centers, the Internet or phones. In addition to having a series
connection of nodes, there are other interconnections that
provide for multiple alternative paths. See Networks in the FOA
Testing Samples Not Everything
Q: Instead of testing everything, how does one determine
how many fibers or components to test for a reasonable
A: The relevant term is AQL - acceptance quality limit -
a term that is used for statistical sampling for testing. Here
is a web page that explains it:
https://qualityinspection.org/what-is-the-aql/. Let testing and
inspection evolve. At first test thoroughly, but drop testing
anything that never fails, it’s a waste of time. Qualify vendors
and test trusted vendors less.
Q: I am often ask how long the fiber we are deploying
today will last or be useable , I typically say something like
it will last at least 20 years and that no one really knows how
long it can be used. What is the oldest fiber optic
network or longish segment that is still in production that you
A: Current cables are probably good for 40 years or so.
Today there is some fiber being used by telcos from the late
1980s and lots form the late 1990s and early 2000s. Lots of OPGW
(optical power ground wire) is in use up to 30 years old. Some
of this old fiber is being used at 10Gb//s. But remember that
fiber from 20 or 30 years ago may have limitations on bandwidth,
since both chromatic and polarization mode dispersion has been
reduced in newer fibers for higher speed networks. And spectral
attenuation of older fibers may be higher and have the water
peak at 1383nm that can affect wavelength-division multiplexing
systems. But the weak point may not be the cable or fiber, but
the splice and termination points where bare fibers may be
exposed to the elements. It's not uncommon to find these fibers
have become brittle and are hard to work with. What we always
tell people is if it’s working, leave it alone. If you want to
upgrade to higher bit rate systems, use fiber characterization
to determine if the fibers are capable of use at higher speeds.
Q: If a FO connector is crossed connected i.e Rx
connected Rx and Tx to Tx at both end, will it works?
I know in theory it will not due to light circuits arrangement,
but is there SFP in the market can tolerate that?
A: We do not know how a SFP could sense and change
polarity unless it had an optical switch inside the module. A
transmitter is a laser or LED and a receiver has a
photodetector. Unless one could have the devices change
function, changing polarity would be impossible.
Construction Near Underground Fiber
Q: What is the recommended distance for any new building
construction to build near underground fiber duct channel?
A: We do not know of any standards or codes related to
construction near fiber or other underground utilities. Common
sense dictates that one stay far enough away to prevent
accidental damage, so adding 5-6 meters(15-20ft) from the areas
of construction makes sense.
Q: Can you guide me some websites or pages where I can learn more about Gpon Technology please?
A: FOA Guide has a big section on FTTH and OLANs using GPON technology. Follow those links,
We are installing 216 fiber aerial cable for 12km with 2
splicing points. We use 3 different fusion machines and they
report that all splices are 0.00db. But when we check using OTDR
we get above 0.04db. The question is how can we get below 0.04db
A: The loss results from both fusion splicers and OTDRs
are estimates, with considerable uncertainty. The splicing
machines estimate based on the optical images of the fibers. The
OTDR estimates loss based on fiber backscatter and may give
significant differences depending on the direction of test. The
differences you quote are within the uncertainty of the two
On Link Length
Q: I have a fiber run for a camera starts at location A to
location B it is 467 feet. Location B jumpers through to
location C which is 2060 ft at location C. Transceivers areSFPs
ONLY GOOD UP TO 1800 ft, but this company only has a multimode
system. Is there something i can do to make this work?
A: It might work as is, since electronics are usually
quoted with conservative specs and will work farther than
specified most of the time. If you have several SFPs, test the
output power to see if it exceeds specs and choose the 2 ones
with highest power. If that still doesn’t work, contact SFP
manufacturers for higher power units.
Q: I’m having trouble finding much information on the
matter. What type of swivel should be used to pull fiber and
what would be the correct way to pull armored fiber.
A: Start on the FOA Guide here and go here for
types of swivel pulling eyes. with https://foa.org/tech/ref/OSP_Construction/Underground_Installation.html
and here are sources https://www.comstarsupply.com/cable-pulling/swivels.html
It’s not common to “pull” armored cable since it’s designed for
direct burial, but a kellums
grip on the jacket will generally work.
Errors In A Data Link
Q: What is the significance of bit error, and what is the
acceptable rate for communications and submersible vehicles?
A: On any data link, there is an acceptable amount of
error that can be tolerated. If it’s a digital voice link, a BER
10E-6 (1 error in 1million bits) is acceptable without affecting
voice quality. If it’s a link to your bank, the typical standard
is a million times higher (10E-12). Link protocols usually have
ways to determine BER, like attaching a checksum to the end of a
data packet and having it checked at the receiving end. If a
error is suspected, the packet will be discarded and
retransmitted. Here is a tutorial
on BER and an explanation
of errors in a a fiber optic link.
Math of Fiber Optics
Q: Do you by any chance recommend any books as an
introduction to understand the mathematics of fiber optics?
Fiber optics confuses me, particularly how so much data
can travel over light without interfering with each other,
A: If you are interested in information theory, that’s
really covered by Claude Shannon at Bell Labs 70 years ago.
That’s actually pretty simple. Shannon proved that digital data
was best and how much data could be transmitted with a given
amount of bandwidth (Read
more). There are several levels of math associated with
fiber optics. The real theoretical basis is probably in dozens
of books but I like these:
Top Level: Gerd
Middle Level: Jeff
If you are interested in non-math explanations, the FOA website
For testing math (dB loss, metrology, etc.) these links or the FOA
book on Testing
and Fiber Optics
Math of Insertion Loss Testing - Reference Methods
Q: Why NOT make the use of APC connectors the new standard
for all adds, moves and changes to any campus, MDU or similar
application using single mode cable?
A: There is absolutely no reason not to use APC
connectors other than the cost is higher and one must be careful
if they are used in a cable plant that also has PCs or UPCs
because they are incompatible. We recommend them all the time
for short links like data centers, passive optical LANs and FTTH
where runs of singlemode fiber are short. In fact they are very
common in these networks today.
Q What is normal Range for good power in an FTTH fiber?
A: The GPON specification for downstream power from the
OLT is OLT transmitter power should be 0 to +6dBm and link
attenuation in the range of 13 to 28dB, which says receiver
power the ONT must be a maximum of 13 dB less than +6dBm or
-7dBm and a minimum of 28 dB less than 0dBm or -28dBm, so -7 to
-28dBm at the receiver.
Upstream, the similar calculation is ONT transmitter -4 to
+2dBm and the receive power at theOLT is -11 to
See http://thefoa.org/tech/ref/appln/FTTH-PON.html for the full
specifications for GPON.
Cable Before Installation
Does the FOA publish a standard for assessing single-mode
fiber optic cables, prior to use on a specific project?
A: The ANSI/NECA/FOA-301 fiber optic installation
standard covers this in Section 4.1. It recommends visual
inspection and testing if there is any suspicion of damage to
the cable. Many contractors will test a couple of fibers with an
OTDR before installing any cable, just for assurance. It
requires an OTDR with a pigtail launch cable and a mechanical
Cable Bend Radius
We are working on project where we need to know difference
between short term and long term bend radius for fiber optic
A: The bend radius for cables is generally specified
under two conditions - under stress, e. g. when being pulled, it
is a radius 20 times the cable diameter. Relaxed, after
installation, it is a radius 10 times the cable diameter. The
relaxed specification, 10X, is considered a long term
specification. Some of the new high fiber count cables have
different specifications, sometimes 15X or 20X under either
condition. Check with the manufacturer for their specific cable.
Q: If testing a 40KM link with 1KM launch and
receive cords should I be able to see the connector and cassette
splice on each side? My OTDR setup is at 64KM, 300ns pulse and
10 second test at 1310/1550/1625. It shows as a single event so
far but with the pulse width at 300ns won’t that combine the
events into one event during analysis?
A: You will not be able to resolve a connector and splice
close together, especially on a long link like that. 300ns is
almost 60m pulse width! You will see an even of the splice and
Q: We are looking at the specs for two devices, A
and B. The spec sheet of Device A lists it is capable of MM in
850nm wavelength. The spec sheet of Device B lists it can do MM
at 1300nm. If I connect these devices via MM patch cord, what is
the impact due to different wavelengths? Will the transmission
suffer significant loss or since both are multimode, wavelength
A: Fiber works at either wavelength, but transceivers do
not. The attenuation rate for MM fiber is ~3dB/km at 850nm but
only ~1dB/km at 1300nm. But 850nm receivers use silicon
photodiodes while 1300 nm receivers use InGaAs. The 1300
detectors are not sensitive at 850nm and vice versa. So while
the fiber works fine, the electronics do not. They should only
be used with like devices.
questions are now available here on the FOA Guide.
continuing quest to help people understand how to test fiber
optic cable plants and communications systems, we've created two
more "QuickStart Guides to Fiber Optic Testing." They are
simple, step-by-step guides on how to test fiber optic cable
plants, patchcords or single cables using insertion loss or OTDR
techniques and optical power from transceivers. It's as
straightforward as it can get - what equipment do you need, what
are the procedures for testing, options in implementing the
test, measurement errors and documenting the results.
It can't get much simpler.
Send anybody you know who needs to know about fiber optic
testing here to learn how it's done in a few minutes.
Fiber Optic Cable Plants And Patchcords
Fiber Optic Cable Plants With An OTDR
Optical Power In Communications Systems
Tech Topics -
Fiber Optic Tester In Your Pocket? (See the video on
The camera in your old cell phone is sensitive to infrared light
- lots more than your eye - and can detect light in an optical
fiber or from a transmitter. Chris Hillyer,CFOT/CFOS/I,
Master Instructor, Northern California Sound & Communication
JATC brought this to our attention.
you have an old cell phone, try it. Our experience is that older
cell phone cameras have better sensitivity at IR wavelengths
than newer phones, so you may want to toss that old flip phone
into the toolbox.
YOKOGAWA OTDR Has Extended range, High Resolution And Multitasking
One OTDR manufacturer you don't hear as much about is YOKOGAWA
(formerly ANDO) which is too bad - they make some of the best
OTDRs, exemplified by this new model AQ7280. Need long range -
how about 50dB. High resolution - 0.6m dead zone. Like touch
screens, but for some functions want hard buttons, it's got
that. Options for VFL, microscope, light source and power meter,
etc. - it has that too.
But the unique aspect of the YOKOGAWA AQ7280 is it offers
multitasking - you can let do a trace with long averages while
you inspect connectors, make power readings, use the VFL or
info on the YOKOGAWA AQ7280.
thanks Yokogawa for a gift of an OTDR to use for R&D and
you read the FOA
pages on cleaning?