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December 2022


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Features

A Salute To FOA Schools
FOA Converting To Online Credentials
Submarine Cable Failures
Latest FOA Book - Fiber Broadband
New Fiber U MiniCourse - Project Management
Fiber Optic Conference For Latin America
More Translations Of FOA Textbooks
Cross Reference To FOA Tech Materials

Special Photo Feature - Salute To FOA Schools

Newsletter Sections

Click on any link to jump to that section

News 
FOA School News
New 5G Cell Sites in New York City
Underground Utility Damage Increases
EU Deal On Internet Satellite System
States Loosen Restrictions On Broadband
Telecom Fiji Gets Trained, Instructors Also
Warriors4Wireless Training in SC


Technical 
144 Fiber Connector
Protection For Buried Cables
Managing Projects - Gantt Charts
Guidelines For Patch Panels
FOA Color Code Guides
FOA Online Loss Budget Calculator

Worth Reading  Lots of interesting articles

Q&A    Questions from our readers

Always Interesting!


Training/FiberU
New FOA-Approved Schools,
Fiber U MiniCourses
more
 
Resources
New FOA Technical Resources

Safety  

About the FOA





FOA Certified Techs

CFOT Total


Time To Renew Your FOA Certifications?
Special offer - 1/3 Off Renewal

Jobs
See FOA Jobs Web Page and FOA on FOA on LinkedIn
The FOA Jobs Web Page has been updated and a new page added on Using your FOA Training/Certification to Find the Right Job in Fiber Optics

Where Are The Jobs In Fiber Optics? FOA talks about all the applications for fiber optics, what jobs involve and the qualifications for the workers in the field in this YouTube video.

Join The FOA eMail Newsletter List
Want to be notified when the FOA Newsletter is updated? Sign up for the FOA eMail Newsletter. You can also sign up from your cell phone: text "FOA" to 22828 (usual text message charges apply)


Trademarks: The FOA CFOT® (Certified Fiber Optic Technician) and Fiber U® (the FOA online learning site) are registered trademarks of the FOA.
FOA Guide
Want to know more about fiber optics? Looking for specific information? Here's the largest technical reference on the web: The FOA Online Fiber Optic Reference Guide.

fiberu.org

Free online self-study programs on many fiber optics and cabling topics are available at Fiber U, FOA's online web-based training website.


 FOA Reference Books
Available Printed or eBooks
The fiber book is available in Spanish and French

FOA Reference
                          Guide to Fiber Optics book FOA
                          Reference Guide to Premises Cablng book FOA
                          Reference Guide to OSP Fiber Optics book FOA
                          Reference Guide to Fiber Optics book
FOA Reference
                          Guide to Fiber Optic Network Design book FOA Book
                        on Fiber Optic Testing FOA
                            Outside Plant Fiber Optics Construction
                            Guide  Lennie Lightwave

Lennie and Uncle Ted's Guides are now also available as free iBooks on iTunes.
Lennie
                        Lightwave's Guide To Fiber Optics   Uncle
                        Ted's Guide to Premises Cablling
Click on any of the books to learn more.
Fiber Optic Safety Poster to download and print


FOA Videos on videos

FOA is a member of:

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FTTH Council

The FOA Newsletter is edited by Jim Hayes - send your stories, leads, ideas, comments to <jim @ foa.org>
Jim Hayes


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Current Issue of FOA Newsletter


Time To Renew Your FOA Certifications?

To keep your FOA certifications active, you need to renew them when they expire. Now we have a new more convenient way to renew - an online store at Paypal - where you can quickly and conveniently use your PayPal account or your credit card to renew your certifications.

You can now renew with a credit card or PayPal
 


Join FOA On  Social Media




FOA on LinkedIn


FOA has 3 LinkedIn Groups

FOA - official page on LinkedIn - covers FOA, technology and jobs in the fiber optic marketplace

FOA Fiber Optic Training - open to all, covers fiber optic technology and training topics

Grupo de La Asociación de Fibra Óptica FOA (Español)




A Salute To FOA's Schools And Training Organizations


When the FOA was started in 1995, the founders were mostly teachers. They taught for their companies, schools, military services or were independent trainers offering courses wherever they were needed. They rcognized the need for a trained workforce and had been doing their part to train people to join that workforce.

The FOA was created to not be a training organization but as a professional organization that would set standards for training and certifying techs. The FOA created a network of training organizations that offered training that met the FOA's stringent standards for curriculum, facilities and instructor competence.

A quarter of a century later, the FOA network of approved schools worldwide is recognized as the best source for general fiber optic training and certification. We do not mean to slight the many manufacturers who offer training on their products; that training is among the best you can get, but it's specific to their products. Some of the FOA approved schools even train for or in partnership with specific manufacturers.

FOA schools worldwide
FOA Schools Worldwide - plus many travel to other regions, pole to pole.

As a non-profit organization founded by the industry specifically to develop a competent workforce, FOA provides the consultation, curriculum and contacts to get schools started as a service to new schools. FOA's worldwide network of 200+ approved schools is growing as more organizations take advantage of our expertise in workforce development and our comprehensive support for getting new schools started. FOA has over 25 years experience and nearly 90,000 certified fiber techs (with ~120,000 certifications) have been trained and certified by FOA schools.

FOA's schools join a network of schools that collaborate to create better training. We share technical knowledge, new training techniques and experiences in training that often results in better training at all the schools. That was especially important in during the pandemic as schools adapted to the need for student safety while ensuring high quality training. One useful technique that was first used then was controlling instruments remotely using the participants smart devices (phone or tablet), allowing students to use OTDRs themselves without ever touching the instrument itself.

FOA encourages the schools to adapt the basic CFOT curriculum to the needs of their students. This allows FOA to also use its schools to help us learn about new technologies being used in the field. Schools are encouraged to bring vendors into the training to teach about the use of new products and techniques. They share this with the FOA and we can help inform others about this. It has also led to new courses and certifications, like data centers, fiber for wireless and premises cabling.

The process of becoming a FOA approved school is not easy. Schools must have a proven track record in training, meet requirements for curriculum and hands-on labs, then identify a capable instructor who must follow the path to FOA instructor certification. It takes all that to ensure a school can provide quality training for fiber optic techs.

FOA is proud of its schools! We're pleased to show you below more about them and their facilities, instructors and trained and certified fiber optic techs.

Photos from FOA schools - but only about 1/8th of them. More in the future!


FOA Is Converting To Online Credentials For All Certifications

CFOT
FOA will soon start issuing credentials for all certifications online. Instead of a paper or PDF ID card, all new and renewal certifications will be issued electronically and viewed online. One online certification will list all the FOA certifications the person holds. Users can post the credential on LinkedIn, Facebook and other social media platforms. AND they can print themselves a real paper certificate!

When we upload the credentials, the certification holder will get an email with directions on how to log in and receive their credential. This change is being implemented soon and future certification credentials will be online.



Can A Cable Failure Cut Off Internet For A Country Or Region?

Telegeography asked this question in a recent blog post. It provides an excellent view of how important fiber is to the world's communications networks.

With the recent damage to the Nord Stream gas pipeline, there's been lots of talk about the potential risk to submarine telecommunications cables in Europe. This incident has led to speculation about whether it would be possible to somehow “cut off” Europe from the rest of the world. While I don't want to speculate on the risk of sabotage, I did think it would be worthwhile to explain exactly how the continent connects to the rest of the world.


European submarine cables

Map of European submarine cables (Telegeography map)

Undersea cables are fragile. On average, 2-4 cables break somewhere in the world every week. Given this situation, the submarine cable industry is sharply focused on efforts to mitigate risk to cables. Cables are heavily armored and buried when laid in fault-prone areas. Submarine cables are also protected by a robust system of response and repair. Dozens of cable ships are standing by to repair damaged cables.  

Bear in mind that the capacity of the cables varies dramatically. The brand-new Grace Hopper cable, which links the U.K. and Spain to the U.S., has a potential capacity of 352 Tbps. In contrast, the older Yellow cable is capable of only 25 Tbps.


European bandwidth


Europe is connected to North America via 17 cables. The majority of trans-Atlantic cables land in the U.K. and France, but Denmark, Norway, Ireland, and Spain also have landings.The trans-Atlantic route accounted for 75% of Europe’s total interregional bandwidth in 2021.

There are six major Europe-West African cable systems, along with 11 smaller cables that link Southern Europe to Northern Africa (excluding Egypt).

Presently, 13 cable systems link Europe to Egypt and the Middle East. The vast majority of these cables are connected to Egypt. These systems are also responsible for carrying data between Asia and Europe.

Beyond these three major corridors, Europe does have a few other intercontinental options. The EllaLink cable links Portugal to Brazil, and the Caucasus Cable System spans the Black Sea, linking Bulgaria to Georgia with terrestrial connectivity to other countries in the Caucasus region.

What About Land-based Options?

There are, of course, terrestrial networks that link Europe to Asia. These networks feature far less capacity than what is available on subsea cables, but more importantly, they all go via Russia (maybe not a preferred routing these days). For Europe to the Middle East, there are terrestrial links from Bulgaria-Turkey down to the Middle East. This option lacks the capacity to fully replace subsea connectivity on the route.

Overall, terrestrial options just aren’t a viable back-up option for all of Europe’s interregional capacity.


Telegeography blog post.

Latest FOA Book: Fiber Broadband (Paperback and Kindle)

FOA Guide To Fiber BroadbandHow does broadband work? Without fiber optics it would not work. This book is not the typical FOA technical textbook - it is written for anyone who wants to understand fiber broadband or fiber optics or the Internet. It's also aimed at STEM teachers who want to include communications technology in their classes. This book will try to explain not only how fiber broadband works, but how it was developed. It is intended to be an introduction to communications technology appropriate for a communications course at almost any level (junior high, high school or college,) for managers involved with broadband projects, or for anyone who just wonders how all this stuff works.

The Fiber Optic Association Guide To Fiber Broadband   Paperback ($12.95) and Kindle ($9.95) versions available from Amazon or most booksellers. Kindle version is in color!



New Fiber U MiniCourse - Fiber Optic Project Management

Fiber optic porject managementManaging a fiber optic project can be the easiest part of the installation if the design and planning have been done thoroughly and properly, or, if not, it can be the the hardest. It's certainly important to understand what managing a project entails. This new Fiber U MiniCourse starts by defining a fiber optic project then explains what's involved in managing it from concept to operation.

As usual with Fiber U online learning courses, the course is free and like the Fiber U FTTH course, the
Fiber U Certificate of Completion is free also.

With so many new fiber optic projects starting up and so many new managers, FOA decided this MiniCourse should also offer the Fiber U Certificate of Completion free. 

New Fiber U MiniCourse Fiber Optic Project Management  



Fiber Optic Conference Held For Latin America And South America - November 15-17 

Earlier this month, the Latin America oriented digital magazine TodoFibraOptica held a 3-day virtual event #EXPOFIBRA catering to Spanish speakers throughout all the Americas, co-sponsored by the FOA. The event was themed: “Fiber Optics” The Electricity of the 21st Century”, and achieved to bring together industry leaders, organizations, and stakeholders from various regions to participate from workshops, round tables, and presentations aimed at promoting fiber optics, as well as informing and connecting various parts of the industry’s ecosystem.

FOA Master Instructor and Director, Jerry Morla, was part of roundtables and talks regarding workforce development, leadership and entrepreneurship in telecom, as well as presented a series called “Demystifying Fiber Optics by FiberWizards” posted on YouTube here.

Videos from the event will be available for viewing here.

Conferencia de Fibra Óptica Realizada Para América Latina y Sudamérica - 15-17 de noviembre

A principios de este mes, la revista digital orientada a América Latina TodoFibraÓptica realizó un evento virtual de 3 días #EXPOFIBRA dirigido a hispanohablantes de todas las Américas, copatrocinado por la FOA. El evento tuvo como tema: “Fibra Óptica” La Electricidad del Siglo XXI”, y logró reunir a líderes de la industria, organizaciones y partes interesadas de varias regiones para participar de talleres, mesas redondas y presentaciones destinadas a promover la fibra óptica, así como como informar y conectar varias partes del ecosistema de la industria.

El Instructor Maestro y Director de FOA, Jerry Morla, formó parte de mesas redondas y charlas sobre el desarrollo de la fuerza laboral, el liderazgo y el espíritu empresarial en telecomunicaciones, y también presentó una serie llamada "Desmitificando la fibra óptica por FiberWizards" publicada en YouTube aquí.

Los videos del evento estarán disponibles para verlos aquí.



More Translations of FOA Textbooks

Guia de Referência sobre Fibra Óptica da FOAFOA is a very international organization and it works hard to accommodate the language needs of everyone. We have been translating our books and website into the languages most requested, and this month, we add two more textbook translations. We also want to thank Jerry Morla, FOA CFOS/I instructor and Director who has been doing the recent translations into Spanish, his native language.


Details below.



 

FOA  has a web page with resources on fiber broadband networks and the IIJA/BEAD funding programs.



Fiber Optic History - The Video

FOA recently created a timeline of fiber optic history to show how the technology and applications of fiber optics has developed in its 50+ year history. That seemed to be a perfect topic for one of the FOA video lectures, so we created FOA Lecture 73, The History of Fiber Optics - A Timeline available on YouTube.


Cross Reference To FOA Technical Reference Materials

With a dozen textbooks in 4 languages, almost 1,000 pages of technical information on the FOA Guide, 100+ videos and two dozen online courses at Fiber U, all this can make it difficult to find the right information. To help this, we have created a cross reference guides:
Cross Reference Guide to Textbooks, Online Guide and Fiber U    FOA Videos Guide.


FOA Newsletter Sections

News     Technical    Worth Reading    Q&A    Training/FiberU    Resoures    Safety   About





Special Feature - A Salute To FOA Schools


Since FOA started offering the CFOT certification 25 years ago, FOA Approved Schools have been teaching people to design, install and operate fiber optic networks, creating the workforce that has been instrumental in building today's communication networks. FOA and its worldwide network of advisors has created the standards for certifying techs and helped the schools by offering technical references and curriculum for them to adapt to their students needs, but it is the schools who do most of the work, certifying most of the nearly 90,000 fiber optic techs who hold about 120,000 FOA certifications.

FOA wants to salute our 200+ schools worldwide for all their achievements over the years and introduce them to you. We asked them to send us some photos of their schools,  instructors and students for this special issue of the FOA Newsletter. Here is a selection of photos from FOA schools around the world.

Here is a complete listing of FOA Approved Training Organizations,


Triple Play fiber Optic Solutions, Durban, South Africa, Joe Botha Instructor (Joe is the author of FOA's OSP construction book and web pages.)

Joe Botha Triple Play SAJoe Botha Triple Play SAJoe Botha Triple Play SA



Wake Tech Comm College, North Carolina, Gilberto Guitarte, Instructor, assisted by Demond Lofton, Sumitomo

Wake Tech Comm ColegeWake Tech Comm ColegeWake Tech Comm Colege



NWEJATC – IBEW Electrical Training Center, Mt. Vernon, WA

NWEJATC – Mt. Vernon, WANWEJATC – Mt. Vernon, WANWEJATC – Mt. Vernon, WA



Low Voltage Nation Training, Optiview Headquarters in Jacksonville FL, Lee Renfroe Instructor

Low Voltage Nation Lee RenfroeLow Voltage Nation Lee RenfroeLow Voltage Nation Lee Renfroe


Marion Technical College,  Dave Ramsey Instructor, Marion, Ohio

Marion Technical CollegeMarion Technical CollegeMarion Technical College


Techtricians Warriors 4 Wireless Training At Aiken Technical College, SC, Tom and Donna Collins Instructors

Warriors For Wireless Training At Aiken Technical CollegeWarriors For Wireless Training At Aiken Technical CollegeWarriors For Wireless Training At Aiken Technical CollegeWarriors For Wireless Training At Aiken Technical College


Owensboro Community and Technical College, Owensboro, Kentucky, Matt Monsour Instructor

Owensboro Community and Technical CollegeOwensboro Community and Technical CollegeOwensboro Community and Technical College


African Advanced Level Telecommunications Institute, AFRALTI, Nairobi, Kenya. John Kanyoni, Technical Director, and Phillip Gerishon Instructors

AFRALTI NairobiAFRALTI NairobiAFRALTI Nairobi


MUNDOINTERCONNECT, Mexico and Ecuador, Andrei Vankov Instructor

MUNDOINTERCONNECTMUNDOINTERCONNECTMUNDOINTERCONNECT



100G Singapore, Bee Suat Lim and Isaac Yeo Hock Lai  Instructors

100G Singapore100G Singapore100G Singapore100G Singapore



About Phase Academy, IMSA CFOT Training. Port Orange, Florida, USA. Techtricians' Tom & Donna Collins Instructors

About Phase AcademyAbout Phase AcademyAbout Phase Academy



Johvic Fibertech Solutions, Ghana. Victor Osazuwa Instructor


Johvic Fibertech Solutions, GhanaJohvic Fibertech Solutions, GhanaJohvic Fibertech Solutions, Ghana


Brierwood Technical Institute, Atlanta, GA, USA. Dominique McGregor and Mark Goodwin-Asire Instructors

Brierwood Technical InstituteBrierwood Technical InstituteBrierwood Technical Institute


 
FiberNexxt, Marietta, GA, USA. Levi West Instructor

FiberNexxtFiberNexxtFiberNexxtFiberNexxt



Wiregrass Georgia Technical College, Douglas, GA
, USA. Michael Williams  Instructor

Wiregrass Georgia Technical CollegeWiregrass Georgia Technical CollegeWiregrass Georgia Technical College



International Network Consultants, Clancy, Montana, Guy Sanford Instructor

International Network ConsultantsInternational Network ConsultantsInternational Network ConsultantsInternational Network Consultants


School of Telecoms, Greece, Panagiotis Goumas Instructor

School of Telecoms GreeceSchool of Telecoms GreeceSchool of Telecoms GreeceSchool of Telecoms Greece


CommsLearning Ltd. New Zealand, Andy Edwards Instructor (Training at Telecom Fiji - see FOA Newsletter November 2022)

CommsLearning LtdCommsLearning LtdCommsLearning Ltd


TelecomTRAIN Toronto, ON, Canada, Kevin Ramdas, Instructor

TelecomTRAINTelecomTRAINTelecomTRAIN



Skyline College, San Bruno, CA
, USA. Dean Scurries Instructor

Skyline CollegeSkyline CollegeSkyline CollegeSkyline College



Domino Fiber Optik, Turkey,  Alper Pelik, Instructor

Domino Fiber OptikDomino Fiber OptikDomino Fiber OptikDomino Fiber Optik



Fiber DK, Copenhagen, Denmark, Ian Gordon Fudge Instructor (Perhaps FOA's most widely travelled instructor - from the Arctic to Africa)

Fiber DKFiber DKFiber DK
Fiber DKFiber DKFiber DKFiber DK


ETSI Iraq, Instructor Abdal-Nasser Rafat

ETSI IraqETSI IraqETSI Iraq



Arrow For Engineering, Jordan, Basil Omari Instructor

Arrow For Engineering SolutionsArrow For Engineering SolutionsArrow For Engineering SolutionsArrow For Engineering SolutionsArrow For Engineering Solutions



Fibre Zone,  Montreal, Canada, Serge Rodrigue Instructor

Fibre Zone MontrealFibre Zone MontrealFibre Zone Montreal



Go Froe, Fitzgerald, GA, USA, Lee Renfroe Instructor

Go FroeGo FroeGo Froe


Mississauga Training Consultants, Mississauga, ON, Canada, Brian Brandstetter, Instructor

MississaugaMississaugaMississaugaMississaugaMississauga

More FOA school news is in the News section below.







News


Lots more news in Worth Reading below




Reports From The Schools: SOAR Summit, PikeVille, Kentucky

SOAR Summit Pikeville, KY

My name is Tim Long and I am the Fiber Instructor for the Southeast Kentucky Community and Technical College (FOA Approved School #353) located in Harlan, Ky.

I recently attended the SOAR Summit Seminar in Pikeville, KY, October 19-20, 2022. At this event I had a booth showing attendees how to splice fiber and illustrate the basic fiber optics techniques.
FOA helped provide essential teaching guides for my booth.

While there, I had Congressman Hal Rodgers of Kentucky's 5th District to stop by. Congressman Rodgers has been instrumental in providing broadband fiber funding for our distressed region. While he was at our booth, I showed Congressman Rodgers, how to splice a fiber.

Southeast Kentucky Community and Technical College in Harlan, Ky is one of 9 KCTCS colleges FOA helped set up fiber programs to train the workforce to build "Kentucky Wired." When they started their programs, there were 2 FOA CFOTs in Kentucky; today there are 1200! Good work everybody!


New 5G Cell Sites Are Appearing In New York City

5G
Photo: Amir Hamja for the New York Times

By now everybody is familiar with the usual urban 5G cell site, a small antenna on a street light or utility pole along many city streets around the world. But the NY Times reported a new type of cell tower has been showing up in NY City.

The tower is a new 5G antenna tower erected by LinkNYC, the latest hardware in New York’s sweeping technological upgrade. New York City has an agreement with CityBridge, the team behind LinkNYC, that involves installing 2,000 5G towers over the next several years, an effort to help eliminate the city’s “internet deserts.” Ninety percent will be in underserved areas of the city — neighborhoods in the Bronx, Brooklyn, Queens, Staten Island and above 96th Street in Manhattan.

Once the towers are activated, residents will have access to free digital calling and free high-speed WiFi as well as 5G service. That seems to be te reason for the size of the tower; it needs to be big enough for several antennas. Many of the locations were previously home to pay phones, some of which may have been converted to Internet kiosks in another NYC project.

From the NYTimes, November 5, 2022.


Underground Utility Damages Increased Since 2019 Per "DIRT" Report

The Common Ground Alliance (CGA - the "Call Before You Dig" group) recently announced the findings from its 2021 Damage Information Reporting Tool (DIRT) Report, and the data indicate that damages have increased since 2019.
 
The analysis suggests that following challenges in the damage prevention process are responsible for nearly 76% of all damages:

  • no notification to the 811 center
  • failure to pothole and/or maintain sufficient clearance
  • facilities not marked or marked inaccurately due to locator error
  • improper excavation practices

The Report recommends that stakeholders tailor damage prevention efforts and investment to address the specific leading root causes to most effectively lower damages and improve the damage prevention process.


EU secures deal on satellite internet system

The European Union has reached a deal on a 6-billion-euro ($6.2 billion) satellite internet system, driven by the bloc's push to boost its own space and communications sectors and ensure security by cutting its reliance on foreign suppliers, The European Commission announced the initiative to build and operate a satellite internet system in February.

The EU scheme comes amid growing concerns about Russian and Chinese military advances in outer space and a surge in satellite launches. Having its own satellite internet system could help the bloc speed up the rollout of broadband internet in Europe while it would also cover Africa, allowing the EU to offer countries there an alternative to Chinese competitors. A space-based network could back up terrestrial networks in the event of major outages or disasters, and offer connections in places not covered by traditional service providers.

BRUSSELS, Nov 17 (Reuters)


Alabama, New Mexico loosen restrictions on broadband funding

Voters in Alabama and New Mexico signed off on similar amendments to their state constitutions removing barriers for funding to boost internet access. Both states had restrictions on local governments providing aid or grants to private entities, which created a major hurdle for officials to disperse the broadband funding it received through the covid-19 economic recovery package signed into law last March. The approved amendments will create exceptions allowing officials at either the state or local level to dole out broadband funds more easily.

Washington Post, The Tech 202 Newsletter  



FOA Training (November 2022)

FOA's roster of 200+ approved schools is growing as more organizations recognize our expertise in workforce development and our comprehensive support for getting new schools started. FOA has over 25 years experience and nearly 90,000 certified fiber techs (with ~120,000 certifications). As a non-profit organization founded by the industry specifically to develop a competent workforce, FOA provides the consultation, curriculum and contacts to get schools started as a free service to new schools.

Here is some news about organizations being trained by FOA Approved Schools and Certified Instructors.


Training At Telecom Fiji

Andy Edwards of CommsLearning Limited emailed us as he was preparing to head home to New Zealand that he had just spent time training personnel at Telecom Fiji - 55 CFOT’s trained, 6 Designers and 4 instructors who can deliver CFOT internally with certifications going via CommsLearning, FOA's Approved School In Zew Zealand.

Here is the report from Andy Edwards, CommsLearning, NZ:

Telecom Fiji engaged CommsLearning to train 55 technicians to CFOT standard and 6 Planners to CFOS-D standard. In addition, we were to teach 4 of their staff to become CFOS-I’s, FOA Certified Instructors so they could train others. To begin with, I taught the 6 planners on CFOS-D, whilst the trainee Instructors observed. The group of 6 all passed their exam. We then moved onto the Technicians, training them in 4 groups, I presented the first course, then the instructors took a couple of sections each, until the final (4th) course, where the Instructors ran the whole session under my watchful eye.

To enable the exam to be taken after just 3 days, the Instructors ran evening study groups in local language, often continuing until 9pm, which saw some very impressive results from the 4 CFOT groups who all took the exam online.

This was an intensive program of work, but was very enjoyable, and now Telecom Fiji Limited have 4 Instructors who are able to deliver the CFOT course internally to TFL technicians, with exams being taken online through CommsLearning.

We have now started discussions to allow the Instructors to deliver the CFOT training to Teleocm Fiji customers - that’ll bring benefits to all concerned.

And, of course, some photos of the classes:


Telecom Fuji Training
Andy Edwards, CommsLearning, with one of his classes at Telecom Fiji

Telecom Fiji  Telecom Fiji
Sessions included classroom lessons and hands-on labs, like all FOA certification courses

Telecom Fiji  Telecom Fiji
But then, all work and no play makes things too dull!


Warriors For Wireless Training At Aiken Technical College

Warriors for Wireless

Aiken Technical College in Graniteville, SC hosted a fiber optic training class for Warriors4Wireless  taught by Donna and Tom Collins, FOA Master Instructor. The Fiber Optic Association, along with Corning, NATE, T-Mobile, and others in the industry support W4W programs to train veterans for careers in wireless including fiber optics.

Warriors 4 Wireless

Tom Collins (in yellow shirt) uses innovative training methods like using mobile devices to interface to fiber optic instruments to enhance learning. When he teaches splicing fibers, he brings plenty of fiber to splice and then test with OTDRs. Corning Pioneer Gerry Harvey, a retired Corning OSP expert, and Steve Colby, from Corning stopped by the class to meet the students and provide career advice. Most students left the course with job offers already.


Welcome School #5 in Ohio
This month FOA welcomes Washington County Career Center as our 5th school in Ohio. Last year, the Governor's office held a formal ceremony to announce the opening of a FOA school at Tri-County Career Center (FOA Newsletter September 2021.) Washington County Career Center is the latest addition to the network and several more are coming shortly. Soon Ohio will catch up with Kentucky with 9 KCTCS schools in the FOA network.



Technical

Fiber optic technology, standards, equipment, installation, etc.


The FOA Update Page covers the new technology and applications we covered in this newsletter recently. Now you can review all that new tech at once.


FOA
                          Guide

Cross Reference To FOA Technical Reference Materials

The FOA has almost 1,000 pages of technical information on the FOA Guide, 100+ videos and two dozen online courses at Fiber U, all this can make it difficult to find the right information.

Cross Reference To FOA Tech Materials
To help this, we have created a cross reference guide to the textbooks, Online Guide and Fiber U courses, all the FOA technical information. Besides the textbooks, online Guide and Fiber U, each section of the Guide also includes links to the 100+ FOA videos available.
Cross Reference Guide to Textbooks, Online Guide and Fiber U

FOA Videos
We have also rearranged the 100+ FOA videos in similar categories on the Contents Page of the Online Guide, making the videos, especially the lectures, much it much easier to find a video on a particular topic. 
FOA Videos Guide.



fiberu.org

Want to know more about fiber optics? Study for FOA certifications? Free Self-Study Programs are on Fiber U®





Sponsored Content

OptConn LogoOptConn is a value-add re-seller of optical connectivity products, services and solutions. With over 30 years of experience in the fiber optics industry we are here to serve your requirements from fiber optic training with FOA certification to products, materials and supplies.

We have partnerships with industry leading manufacturers to support your installation, splicing and testing needs. Our goal is to guide, support and recognized our client’s requirements.

Learn more about OptConn  



How Many Fibers Can You Get In One Connector? 144!

Sumitomo SWK connector

The Sumitomo SWK connector can terminate 48, 96 or 144 fibers. It uses 4 MPO ferrules in a circular connector body to handle all those fibers. The product line includes breakout modules for LCs or MPOs.
For more information, go to the Sumitomo SWK web page.

Protection For Buried Utilities Like Fiber Optics

buried cable protection

Plate-Guard is a major innovation for the protection of all buried pipeline assets – for oil and gas lines, high-voltage electricity grids, telephone and fiber optic cables or water and sewage networks. Plate-Guard is the optimal solution for the safety and protection of these underground assets.

More than 50% of third party damage to a pipeline is done accidentally by the excavator bucket of a mechanical digger. Tests show that the polyethylene plate cover resists the impact of a mechanical digger and prevents damage to the pipeline.

Read more about Plate Guard  




Managing Fiber Optic Projects - The Gantt Chart

(With An Excel File To Make Your Own)

The most common way to track projects is the Gantt Chart, a chart of activities that tracks the progress of projects along a timeline. each activity is represented by a bar and the position and length of the bar represents the starting date and duration of the activity. This allows you to see what activities are needed for the project, when the activities start and end so it can be used to track the progress of the project visually. Here is what a Gantt Chart for a fiber project might look like:

Fiber Optic Gantt Chart

You might remember an article in the FOA Newsletter in April 2022 or the FOA Guide page on Project Management about the timing of a fiber optic project where we showed the progression of steps in a project like this:

Fiber Optic Project Timeline

The Gantt Chart above is simply this list converted to a Gantt Chart using a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. You can download a copy of the FOA Gantt Chart spreadsheet (xlsx file - 16kB) and use it to create your own Gantt Chart for any project. All you have to do is to input your own data and change the activity names as necessary. You can also follow the directions from Microsoft to create your own version.

Fiber Patch Panels - Routing Guidelines For Cables

The US National Electrical Code states “You must install equipment and cabling in a neat and workmanlike manner. " We've all seen patch panels that obviously violate that rule! Eric Pearson of Pearson Technologies, a frequent contributor to this Newsletter, shares with us some guidelines he has developed to ensure "a neat and workmanlike manner."

Patch panel cable routing

Read Eric Pearson's "Four Fiber Patch Panel Routing Guidelines" in the FOA Guide.


More Help On Color Codes (Now Copper Cabling And Fiber Optics)

The FOA has created a pocket guide to fiber optic color codes that we are sending to new and renewed CFOTs. It has color codes for fibers and buffer tubes, connectors and premises cables inside and on the back, QR codes to take you directly to the FOA Guide and Fiber U.

FOA Color Codes Guide card 

The FOA Guide page on Fiber Optic Color Codes is one of the most read pages on the FOA website and the Fiber Optic Color Codes minicourse on Fiber U very popular also.

Here's a do-it-yourself FOA Guide To Fiber Optic Color Codes card. Just download the PDF file, print it on a color printer and fold it up as shown. Then you have your own pocket guide to color codes. Make a bunch for your co-workers too.

Color codes U-print  FOA Color Code Card  color code card UTP

Then we realized that many of your also do structured cabling work, so it was a natural to add a Color Code Guide for UTP copper cabling in printable (below) and electronic (above) versions.

color codes

But we did not stop there. We know how many of you use your mobile devices on the job, so we created a version of the Color Code Guide you could download and use on your smartphone or tablet. It's a PDF file, so you just download it and save it on your device and it will be with you always.

Here are the links to download your own FOA Guides to Fiber Optic Color Codes
FOA Guide to Fiber Optic Color Codes (print your own version) PDF  
FOA Guide to Fiber Optic Color Codes (electronic version for your smartphone, tablet or PC) PDF  

And For UTP Cabling

FOA Guide to UTP Cabling Color Codes (print your own version) PDF  
FOA Guide to UTP Copper Cabling Color Codes (electronic version) PDF

Warning For Techs Doing OSP Restoration

Warning

FOA received an inquiry about whether techs working on restoring OSP links should be concerned about eye safety if the link used fiber amplifiers. To answer this question, we had to do some research on fiber amplifiers. The short answer is YES, you should be concerned. The long answer is more technical and includes details that every OSP tech needs to know.

See "Fiber Amps And Restoration" in the FOA Newsletter Archives..



Try The FOA's Online Loss Budget Calculator

FOA has written many articles about loss budgets, something everyone involved in fiber optics needs to know and needs to know how to calculate. We've created a online Loss Budget Calculator that does the work for you. Just input your cable plant data and it calculates the loss budget. It works on any device, especially smartphones and tablets for field use and even allows printing the results.
 

FOA
                        Loss Budget Calculator


Bookmark this page (especially on your smartphone): FOA Loss Budget Calculator Online

Worth Reading

Each month we read hundreds of newsletters and online articles. These are the ones we think you will find "worth reading."

FOA Timeline of Fiber Optic History  and the new FOA video "The History Of Fiber Optics"

Fiber or copper?  AT&T PR photo from the mid 1970s

The FOA's History




Worth Reading (And Watching):

FOA  has a web page with resources on fiber broadband networks and the IIJA/BEAD funding programs.

Cross Reference Guide to Textbooks, Online Guide and Fiber U


December 2022

Fibercore's  on-demand webinar entitled "Lighting up the Body - Fiber Optics for Biomedical Applications" takes a look at Biomedical applications currently using fiber optic technology to enhance performance and results, looking at a range specific industry examples.

Optical Fiber Capacity Limits – Where Do We Go Next?  Infinera

The New Broadband Maps Are Finally Here FCC

Verizon plans upstate NY Fios expansion at $12k per passing Fierce Telecom


November 2022

Shetland Cut Off From the World After Undersea Cable Breaks NYTimes

Wireless ISP Starry lays off half its workers in a bid to save cash - The Verge

An Enterprise Guide to Today’s Data Center Landscape - Graybar

Dollars to Megabits, You May Be Paying 400 Times As Much As Your Neighbor for Internet Service – The Markup

U.S. aid program to keep people online was riddled with deception, fraud  Washington Post

New Analysis Shows Offline Households Are Willing to Pay $10-a-Month on Average for Home Internet Service, Though Three in Four Say Any Cost is Too Much - National Telecommunications and Information Administration

Head of Google Fiber Says They're Ready To Start Building New Cities  - Reuters

October 2022

NTT to build municipal private 5G wireless network for Las Vegas  Fierce Wireless  

ESRI has created an ebook on GIS location technology for telecom. Use the link to download the book.


September 2022
  

Fiber optic technology powers the internet, and it's a big business  MSN

Fast Fiber Networks Have Quietly Won the Broadband War - CNET

Fiber – Integral Enabler of Smart Water Infrastructure - Graybar Webinar on demand by Corning


August 2022

The First Transcontinental Telephone Line 
began operation on  July 29th in 1915 - 3400 miles between New York and San Francisco - required over 100,000 telephone poles! Wonders of World Engineering


July 2022

Lightwave Magazine Summer 2022



Lightwave's Summer Issue
focuses on fiber in the CATV industry and more.





Worth Watching: Conocimiento Esencial: ¿Por qué la fibra óptica? 
creado por FiberWizards 


From Earlier Issues

Recruiting And Training Today's Fiber Optic Workforce - Learn the fundamentals to recruit and train new fiber optics - by FOA's Jim Hayes in ISE Magazine.

Explosive Fiber Broadband Expansion Drives Need for Fiber Technician Training Programs - Telecompetitor - As fiber sees record-setting deployment levels, the demand for fiber optic technicians is stronger than ever.

NTIA Notice of Funding Opportunity   Information from the funding source on applying for US broadband funding

Google Video On Their Undersea Cables YouTube Slick but interesting video on how undersea cables are designed, built and used.

2022 Submarine Cable Map depicts 486 cable systems and 1,306 landings that are currently active or under construction. Telegeography.

Construction Without Disruption - FOA President Jim Hayes' column in ISE Magazine

Fiber Optics Installed By The Lowest Bidder  - ISE Magazine - by Jim Hayes, FOA President.

Building Broadband During Component and Worker Shortages - Broadband Communities - Completing broadband builds requires competent fiber optic techs, but training them requires understanding how they learn - by Jim Hayes, FOA President.



Worth Reading - Magazines, Websites and Newsletters

  dpPro Magazine



The latest Issue of dP-PRO, the "call before you dig" magazine, is online.





 
dpPro sponsors the annual digging safety conference each year - next year in Tampa.


Safety conference 2023




New Fiber Optic Magazine In Spanish

Todo Fibra Optica is a new digital magazine in Spanish for fiber optics in Latin America and South America. Jose Enriquez, editor of  Todo Fibra Optic magazine has many years experience in the fiber optic industry so he knows the industry well. FOA will be working with him to share our extensive technical materials in Spanish.

Read their newsletter here. It is now available online in English and Spanish.

magazine

 
All issues and subscriptions.

Contact:
José Manuel Enriquez Mora, Editor
Todo Fibra Optica LLC
https://todofibraoptica.com/revista-ediciones/
+52 222 302 8224
jose.enriquez@todofibraoptica.com




RTI Telecom Magazine from  Brazil, in Portuguese
. A revista RTI do mês de abril já está disponível online e recomendo a leitura de alguns artigos: 






1995-2020 - FOA's 25th Anniversary!

As part of celebrating 25 years of serving the fiber optic industry as its primary source of technical information and independent certifying body, FOA thought it appropriate to create a short history of the organization and how it has developed  to help the fiber optic industry. We also wanted to recognize the contributions many people have made to the organization over the years that made FOA what it is today.

The FOA history is now archived on the FOA website where you can read it anytime or link to it.
  
Updated info - dB, total internal reflection and science projects,




Worth Reading - News Summary - Past Links Worth Repeating

1983 Video of AT&T's First Test Of A Submarine Cable System From the AT&T Tech Channel archives (worth exploring!)

Richard Epworth's Optical Fiber History from his work at STL from 1966 with Charles Kao.

Communications Systems Grounding Rules: Article 800 provides specific requirements  by Michael Johnston,  NECA Executive Director of Standards and Safety in EC Magazine

US Broadband Coverage By Service Provider from the FCC


How To Build Rural Broadband, Learning From History

In the August 2021 FOA Newsletter, we published a lengthy article on rural broadband and compared it to rural electrification in America in the last century. Much of the comparison was based on an article written in 1940 by a USDA economist, Robert Beall, called "Rural Electrification." 

If you are interested in or involved in rural broadband, we recommend you read the article "How To Build Rural Broadband, Learning From History" in the August 2021 FOA Newsletter and read the Beall article also.


Recycling Fiber Optic Cable -
Contact:
Steve Maginnis
LD4Recycle/ CommuniCom Recycling
(Visit website)
sm@LD4Recycle.com
803.371.5436


Sumitomo's Ribbon Splicing Guide - download from one of the leaders in splicing.

"Who Lost Lucent?: The Decline of America's Telecom Equipment Industry"
This is a MUST READ for managers in telecom or any industry!

This long and well-researched and annotated article in American Affairs Journal should be mandatory reading for every high level manager in a telecom company - or any other company for that matter. To summarize the article, today, America has no major telecom equipment company and fears the major suppliers of equipment who are all foreign, especially the Huawei from China. This article explains how America got into this deplorable state.

OFS also has an excellent website and blog of tech articles worth browsing.

IEC 60050 - International Electrotechnical Vocabulary - An extensive dictionary for fiber optics in English and French. Highly technical - this is one definition: "mode - one solution of Maxwell's equations, representing an electromagnetic field in a certain space domain and belonging to a family of independent solutions defined by specified boundary conditions"

If you are interested in restoration - aren't we all? - you should also read this article in dpPro magazine by FOA President Jim Hayes: Damage Protection Requies Looking Overheas As Well As Underground - dpPRO Magazine - about the problems with aerial cables. His previous article for the magazine was New Techniques for Fiber Optic Installation.

How much fiber optic cable is manufactured each year? CRU Reports - unsurprisingly China is by far the largest market today

The Institute for Local Self-Reliance weekly newsletter has lots of interesting articles and links.

The Open Technology Institute at New America just published “The Cost of Connectivity 2020,”

US Ignite and Altman Solon issued “Broadband Models for Unserved and Underserved Communities

Universal access to broadband is a cornerstone to a strong economy, Achieving universal access will require community partnerships. by
Alfreda B. Norman, Sr. VP,  Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas

FIBER TO THE FARM: The co-ops that electrified Depression-era farms are now building rural internet. Be sure to check out the high-tech equine installation equipment.

Next Century Cities Newsletter - News from cities around the US including Detroit and New York plus small

Infrastructure Get Some Respect, NY TImes "On Tech"   "The magic of the internet requires a lot of very boring stuff behind the scenes. "

DIRT Report On Damage To Utilities Common Ground Alliance (CGA) annual DIRT report provides a summary and analysis of the events submitted into CGA’s Damage Information Reporting Tool (DIRT) for the year 2018. The complete report is available for download here. In addition, there is an interactive dashboard that allows users to filter the data more  by factors contributing to damages.

Structured Cabling News - a website and weekly newsletter about cabling.

The Internet Master Plan for New York City. The New York City Internet Master Plan is a comprehensive framework for the infrastructure and services that provide connectivity to New York City residents and businesses. This Master Plan will guide City actions and public-private partnerships to transform New Yorkers’ access to this essential infrastructure for generations to come.

Fiber Trivia From Corning.

The Future Of Work Is Skills - So Stop Worrying About Degrees - The reality is the future of work is about skills, not just degrees. (FOA Newsletter Feb 2020)

The job market is hot. So why are half of U.S. grads missing out?  

VIAVI Books On Fiber Optic Testing (2 volumes) - They're back!

books  book 2

Besides the FOA reference materials, two JDSU/VIAVI textbooks, Reference Guide to Fiber Optic Testing, Volumes 1 and 2,  were used as references for some of the FOA courses and are recommended for instructors and students. The books are available from VIAVI as eBooks and the everyone should download them and recommend them to others.Download yours now. Volume 1. Volume 2. Viavi Books

Ciena's Submarine Cable Handbooks (4 to download)

Guidebook To MPO Testing OptoTest offers this complete guide to MTP®/MPO testing. In this guide, you will learn all there is to know about the different test methods, equipment options, troubleshooting, and best maintenance practices to ensure that you have the best testing experience. Go here to download the book.

50th Anniversary of The Development of Low Loss Fibers
A history of the development of low loss fiber, a fascinating story by Jeff Hecht on the OSA (Optical Society of America) website.

How OFS Makes Fiber

Interesting YouTube video on how fiber is made. Perhaps a little too much "show biz" but fascinating. If you have ever seen fiber manufacture, look at this video. You will be amazed at how big preforms have become!

How Nexans Makes Copper Cables - compare the process to fiber - don't most of the machines look similar?

The True Cost of Telco Damages (what backhoe fade or target practice can cost)

Rural Electric Cooperatives: Pole Attachment Policies and Issues, June 2019.

Clearfield-FOA Certification Training Clearfield is now offering their customers an FOA CERTIFICATION course. This course provides a basic understanding of fiber optic technology, as well as Clearfield product knowledge and how Clearfield’s integrated product systems work together in a fiber network.

Substandard Contractors - Fiber Optic Knowledge Doesn't Always Trickle Down  (EC Mag)

Another Source Of Articles On Fiber

FOA President and editor of this newsletter Jim Hayes has also been writing a column in Electrical Contractor Magazine for almost 20 years now. Electrical contractors do lots of fiber work and this column has covered some topics they are interested in including installation processes, network design, fiber applications and a lengthy series on dark fiber - what it is, how's its used and how it benefits the growth of communication. A recent web site redesign makes it easier to browse all these articles - just go to http://www.ecmag.com/contributing-authors/jim-hayes and you can see all of them.

Q&A

When readers ask us questions, we genrally refer them to FOA resources where they can find the answer to their question and many more. We first send them to the FOA Guide which is the table of contents for the FOA technical resources. There they can find pages indexed by topic and a search engine for the FOA website. It also links them to FOA videos and courses on our free online learning site Fiber U.

The FOA Fiber FAQs Page (FAQs = frequently asked questions) gathers up questions readers have asked us (which first ran in this newsletter) and adds tech topics of general interest.





Good Question!

Tech Questions/Comments From FOA Newsletter Readers 

More Q&A in the FOA FAQs Page  

Also see the two important questions above in the Technical section.


December 2022

Seeing Splices On OTDR Traces
Q: The reason why I am reaching out is because the CEI is having trouble understanding that not all trace files will show splices. As we both know that means that there is low loss and the network will work more efficiently. I was wondering if you could possibly help give a more in depth explanation so everyone can understand why they are not seeing splices.
A: Nothing in fiber optics is more confusing that an OTDR trace!
First it is necessary to understand how the OTDR measures loss, so start on this page in the FOA Guide: https://foa.org/tech/ref/testing/OTDR/OTDR.html When you get about 3/4 down the page, there is a section called “OTDR Measwurement Uncertainty”  that explains the way a splice loss is measured and the uncertainty of the measurement caused by the difference in backscatter coefficient in the two fibers being spliced.
Next consider how a splice is made - fusing or welding two fibers together. The typical loss of the splice is under 0.1 dB. The difference in fiber backscatter can cause directional loss variations higher that the loss of the splice. If the difference in backscatter is 0.1 dB and the splice loss is 0.1 dB, in one direction it will show 0 dB loss and in the other directin it will show 0.2 dB loss, so the average is about right, 0.1 dB. This is of course how we get “gainers” when the backscatter difference is much higher than the splice loss.
But also consider this. The OTDR digitizes the signals in both axes. If the dB range shown is 40dB and the digitization is 10 bits, each bit represents 0.04 dB. A good fusion splice can be so small, the OTDR cannot detect it because it is less than 1 bit of the measurement resolution.
This is the reason we tell people that documentation is so important. If you know where the splice is, you can look for it and pat yourself on the back if you can’t find it because you are so good at splicing!


What is the application for 10G to the home?
Q:
What is the application for 10G to the home?  Streaming 4K requires 25M, even a family of 8, each watching their own program would only require 200M.
A: The use of 10G is not just for bragging rights. With 10G, you can serve up to 256 (or sometimes more) users, making it a viable alternative for very dense populations. Of course, it can also serve fewer business users who want higher bandwidth than regular GPON.
Utility damages slightly increased since 2019, per DIRT Report
The Common Ground Alliance (CGA) recently announced the findings from its 2021 Damage Information Reporting Tool (DIRT) Report, and the datas indicates that damages have increased since 2019.
 





November 2022

Fiber Characterization
Q:
After installing a long haul backbone fibre, what tests are required on the fibre plant to ensure optimum performance of DWDM. (I understand the need for having OTDR traces.) Are there any FOA Guides that explore such tests?
A:
FOA has a page in the FOA Guide covering this kind of testing - it’s called “fiber characterization.” The page is Fiber Characterization and Testing long haul networks (CD, PMD, Spectral Attenuation)

Mating Cycles
Q:
I’m a NASA contractor and recently we came across a interesting and yet perplexing question.  Does a connector lose a mate cycle every time we put it under the scope for a cleanliness inspection?  We want to catalogue each time we lose a mating cycle and wondered if that counted as well. 
A:
No you would not lose a mating cycle. The connector is well separated from the lens of the microscope. If they touched, it would disturb any dirt on the end of the connector you were trying to inspect and get the microscope lens dirty. A mating cycle is only when mated to another connector - PC and APC connectors have contact between the polished fiber ends and that is what causes wear. Microscopes should not cause mating, not should most power meters for testing, but test sources and meters with fiber pigtails for connections would count as a mating cycle.

Removing Data Center Cables
Q:
I’m wrecking out fiber optic cables at the data center.  They get very tangled if the connectors are intact. Co-workers are cutting the connectors off to make pulling the fiber optic cables through the fiber troughs easier. I was concerned about fiber shards when connectors are cut off.
A:
Cutting off connectors should not produce fiber shards. The plastic coatings on the fiber should keep that from happening. It is OK to cut off connectors or cut the cables into shorter lengths to ease the removal of tangled cables.

Connecting OS1/OS2 SM Fiber
Q:
Can OS1 and OS2 fibers be cross-connected?  Application is for low bandwidth devices with a maximum of 1GB Ethernet connections.
A:
OS1 and. OS2 (G.652) fibers are essentially the same geometrically; the only difference is the manufacturing of OS2 removes the water molecules that cause the water peak at 1244 and 1383 nm.

FTTH Software
Q:
Do you have any recommendations on FTTH software? A search shows a dozen or more offerings but I don’t know anyone using them. Are you familiar with any?
A:
We asked several people who are knowledgeable on software and here is what they said:
It would depend on the application or what you need the software for…
  • For GIS based mapping: Esri
  • For fiber network management systems (FNMS [design/planning and operations]): OSPinsight or Vetro
  • For automated HL design: OSPInsight as well as Biarri
  • For Tier 1 type telecom operator FNMS with BSS/OSS integration: Ericsson NE (Networks) which was based on old Tirks. Another is NetCracker.
  • For GIS enabled construction / project Management: Vitruvi
If I had to start a small to mid sized FTTH system, I would consider ESRI and OSPInsight.



October 2022

How Light travels In An Optical Fiber
Q:
Is there a generalised ratio between the length of an optic fibre and the length of the path actually taken by a light pulse inside that fibre? If yes, do OTDRs factor in such differences in any way? or they such sown the length of the actual path of the light pulses?
A:
Each optical fiber has an effective independent of refraction. The index of refraction is the ratio of the speed of light to the speed of light in the material: n=c/v where n=index of refraction, c=speed of light in a vacuum and v=speed of light in the fiber.
For an optical fiber, the manufacturer measures the index of refraction which is usually in the range of 1.47. Corning SMF-28 singlemdoe fiber for example is specified at 1.4670 @ 1310 nm and 1.4677 @ 1550 nm.
So if you use the equation above, the speed of light in SMF-28 fiber for a 1310nm pulse is c/n or 300,000 km/s divided by 1.4670 = 204,500 km/s.
When an OTDR measures length, it actually measures the time its test pulse takes to go to the end of the fiber and return, so the distance is 2X the actual fiber length. The distance is speed x time.
If a fiber is 1 km long and the speed is 204,500 km/s, the  time forlight to travel the 1km is 1/204500 = 0.00000489 seconds or about 5 milliseconds.
OTDR will measure that fiber as 10 ms becasue its pulse has to go both ways, and it would calculate the length as i km, using that effective index of refraction of 1.4670.
Back to your original question, the index of refraction is the generalized number based on how light travels in the fiber.

Excess Cable In Ducts
Q: Do you have any established characterization on the ratio of the length of optic fibre to the length of its duct (to account for twisting of the fibre inside the duct).
A: The cable after pulling into the duct and no longer under tension will be about 1-2% longer. And remember the fiber is about 1% longer than the cable.

Slack/Service Loops In Manholes
Q: What is the recommended percentage of slack left in manholes for longhaul transmission links?
A: Not so much a percentage as actual length. If it includes a splice, the fiber which will be stored in service loops need to be long enough to conveniently do the splicing outside the manhole - typically 10-15m for each cable. If there is no splice but just provision to pull the cable back down conduit to repair a dig-up during restoration, the distances should be about the same or maybe a bit longer - say 20m of cable..


Do APC Connectors Show Reflectance On An OTDR Trace?
Q:
I was testing a 500meter cable with 1000m launch. In the first event the otdr sensed a splice loss instead of a connector and reflectance. The connector is APC . Is it possible to have no reflectance at all. Pulse at 10ns and duration of 15secs.
A: A good APC connector can show no reflectance. One of our instructors who wrote the OTDR training course when he was at AT&T did some tests for FOA a few years ago. Here are two traces that show the reflectance is so low it is in the noise of the trace.

APC Trace
APPC

September 2022

Splicing Pigtails On A Cable
Q:
I seem to be having an issue finding fiber protection sleeves that can slide over the 3mm patch cable.  I bought a sleeve that said it with made for “single fiber fusion” but the thru hole which I would side the cable thru prior to fusion is too small for the patch cable.  When I try and look on-line for specifications for the thru-hole size, prior to fusion final melting of the glue in the sleeve, all I find are post-melting diameters, none which are even close to being able to handle the 3mm patch cable.
A: Splicing pigtails involves splicing the fibers only and the cables are secured separately. The usual method of splicing on pigtails is to splice the fibers and use the heat shrink tube to seal the splice and the fibers from the outside air and protect it from stress. The splice is placed in a splice tray. On either side, there is 2-3 feet of fiber exposed from the cables being spliced. The splice tray has clamps for all of the cables being spliced on the edges of the tray and the fiber to the splice is coiled neatly on the splice tray. The jacket of the pigtail is clamped at the edge of the splice tray but  ends there, so only fiber is coiled in the tray. If you try to coil fiber, the bulk of the cable can get to be a problem where it’s coiled with the bare fiber. You can get heat shrink protectors for fibers of 250 to 900 micron diameter buffers, but not for jacketed cables.


Important Questions From The Past


Managing And Maintaining a Fiber Optic Cable Plant During Its Lifetime.
Q: Are there guides / recommendations for optic fibre cable life cycle management? (outside plant) including rehabilitation / replacement timelines together with factors that may alter those timelines ( such as seismic activity, extreme weather, human activity-induced fibre cuts etc) also including typical performance deterioration over the life cycle, and the performance levels at which replacement / rehabilitation happens. Or does it happen (and is it normally expected) that operators replace entire sections of fibre (say 400 km) as part of routine maintenance?

A: There is a saying here in the US that in fiber optics “the most common cause of failure is “backhoe fade” in underground cables and  “target practice” for aerial cables.” In other words, damage caused by humans. We know of many fiber optic cable plants that have survived natural disasters like earthquakes - in fact there is a lot of work today using regular cables used in communications to monitor for seismic activity. Fire can be a problem in remote areas, but often it’s because the poles are burned causing the cables to fall.

Over the years we have questioned cable manufacturers about the lifetime of fiber optic cable. They don’t like to make definitive statements but we have been told that based on the cables installed in the past that 40 years is a probable lifetime for most cables. There are certainly cables in use today that are over 30 years old already. The glass fiber is not a problem, it’s the protection from the cables that will eventually fail. Installation techniques can have an effect on the longevity. For example splice closures should be sealed properly to prevent ingress of moisture or dirt. Cables should not be installed with bends below the rated bend radius or with excess tension.

FOA has always told users that fiber optic cables do not need maintenance (https://foa.org/tech/ref/user/maintain.html), a response to some people advocating periodic inspection and cleaning of connections, for example. That’s just more likely to cause damage.

When an accidental break in a cable occurs, we have guidelines for restoration (https://foa.org/tech/ref/restoration/rest.html), and planning for restoration when building the cable plant is very important.

Someday you will certainly want to replace cables, often well before the lifetime of the cable, but generally because you need more fiber or the older fiber will not support the network speeds you want for upgrades. Planning for more fiber by installing more cables can be eased by installing spare underground ducts when first installing cables - here in the US, we call this “Dig Once” (https://foa.org/tech/ref/OSP_Construction/Underground_Construction.html). Testing fibers for higher speeds is called "fiber Characterization” (https://foa.org/tech/ref/testing/test/CD_PMD.html) and is routinely done when speeds above 10G or certainly 100G are considered for older fibers.

Knowing that the lifetime of fiber optic cable plants are ~40 years, it makes sense to plan ahead for future applications, installing lots of fibers, leaving lots of open duct space and choosing network architectures that will not obstruct upgrades. See the article on Netly's network above.


Fiber Optic Color Codes Reference Chart
Q: Has anyone made a fiber optic pocket reference chart that has cable color orders, frequencies, or other commonly used info on it?
A: The FOA has a page on its Online Guide that covers color codes (https://foa.org/tech/ColCodes.htm). It is the most popular page in the FOA Guide! It works great with a smartphone.


More Q&A in the FOA FAQs Page  

 


Dig
                    Once

The word on the "Dig Once" program is getting out - FOA is getting calls from cities asking us for information and advice. Here are some links:

The DoT page on the administration’s Executive Order: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policy/otps/exeorder.cfm
From the Council of State governments: http://www.csg.org/pubs/capitolideas/enews/cs41_1.aspx
From the city of San Francisco: http://sfgov.org/dt/dig-once
An article about Dakota County, MN: https://muninetworks.org/tags/tags/dig-once

And the one to download and hand out:
A “How To” Guide from The Global Connect Initiative: https://share.america.gov/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/6.-GCI-Dig-Once.pdf



Is There A Standard For Fiber Optic Installation?

Another question we get often is "Is there a standard for fiber optic installation." The answer is yes, but not from the usual standards groups you might expect. Over 20 years ago, the National Electrical Contractors Association (NECA) asked FOA to help create a standard for installation. That standard, ANSI/NECA/FOA-301 has been updated three times already and is about ready for another update.

Unlike most of those groups who charge you a fortune for standards, FOA covers the cost so
ANSI/NECA/FOA-301 is available free from FOA.

NECA/FOA
                        301 Fiber Optic Installation Standard

Download your free copy of
ANSI/NECA/FOA-301 here (PDF)


Older questions are now available here.




Training
/ FiberU

News and resources to help you learn more and stay updated.

Find a listing of all the FOA-Approved schools here.

fiberu.org

Free online self-study programs on many fiber optics and cabling topics are available at Fiber U, FOA's online web-based training website.
Free online training at Fiber U


The FOA has >100 videos on videos 


FOA School News

 FOA's roster of approved schools is growing as more organizations recognize our expertise in workforce development and our comprehensive support for getting new schools started. FOA has over 25 years experience and nearly 90,000 certified fiber techs (with ~120,000 certifications). As a non-profit organization founded by the industry specifically to develop a competent workforce, FOA provides the consultation, curriculum and contacts to get schools started as a free service to new schools.

Welcome #5 in Ohio
This month FOA welcomes Washington County Career Center as our 5th school in Ohio. Last year, the Governor's office held a formal ceremony to announce the opening of a FOA school at Tri-County Career Center (FOA Newsletter September 2021.) Washington County Career Center is the latest addition to the network and two more are coming shortly. Soon Ohio will catch up with Kentucky with 9 KCTCS schools in the FOA network.

Telecom Fiji
Andy Edwards of CommsLearning Limited emailed us as he was preparing to head home to New Zealand that he had just spent time training personnel at Telecom Fiji - 55 CFOT’s trained, 6 Designers and 4 instructors who can deliver CFOT internally with certifications going via CommsLearning. Details above.



FOA Network Of Approved Schools Continues To Grow

The need for more fiber optic networks to support fiber broadband and wireless/5G networks has led to a strong demand for more trained and FOA-certified techs, and that has led to a demand for more training organizations. FOA has been adding new schools and certifying new instructors to meet the demand.

Schools added recently:
School 403: Washington County Career Center
School 774: Arrow For Engineering, Amman, Jordan
School #401: Western Wyoming Community CollegeSchool 399: Team Fishel, Virginia
School 398, Telecom Tech, Colorado
School 396 Optconn, Boston, MA
School 395 Fiber Wizards (Knowledge on Demand LLC)
School 393, Carolina's Solution Group
School 394, Tri-County Career Center, Nelsonville, Ohio
School 388:  Global Com of Sterling, Virginia, USA
School 389. CWA-JATC Telecom Training Center, San Jose, CA
School 390  Northern Allied Communications, Nespelem, WA
School 391  Lewis-Clark State College, Lewiston, ID
School 392  Wallace Community College, Dothan, AL


Complete listing of FOA Approved Training Organizations
 



Need A Fiber Optic Course Onsite? Invite an FOA School To Come To You

FOA often gets inquiries from an organization that has personnel that needs training in fiber optics. Recent inquiries have included contractors, a manufacturer of high-reliability products using fiber optics and a cable manufacturer. In many cases, where there are several people needing training, FOA can recommend a FOA Approved School and Certified Instructor who will come to their location to teach a class. The advantage  is of course the savings in travel costs if the class comes to you, but it also offers the opportunity to customize the course to fit your needs, even use your equipment or work on your components, so the training is more relevant to those taking the class.

Contact FOA to discuss the idea of a custom, on-site class to see if it will better meet your needs.



FOA/Fiber U On-The-Job Training (OJT) Program

The FOA Fiber U OJT program for novices combines online study at Fiber U with OJT with mentoring by experienced co-workers and their supervisor to help new employees develop into FOA-certified technicians in only one year. 
OJT

The FOA Fiber U “OJT-To-Cert” program  includes both fiber optics and premises cabling (copper, fiber & wireless), so it covers techs working in both outside plant and premises jobs. 

Like other FOA programs, the OJT-To-Cert program is free. If you and/or your company is interested in the FOA OJT-To-Cert program, contact FOA.

To explain how OJT works and FOA's OJT-To-Cert program, FOA created a short video: Lecture 62: On The Job Training For Fiber Optics Using Fiber U     




FOA "Work-To-Cert" Program

Experience Plus Online Study At Fiber U = FOA Certification

Experienced fiber optic technicians can become FOA Certified using their experience in fiber optics and study for the FOA certification exams online at Fiber U. Thousands of industry professionals have applied to the FOA directly for certification without the need for classroom training, based on their knowledge and skills developed working the field. Since FOA certifications are based on KSAs (knowledge, skills and abilities), current techs can show the skills and abilities required through their field experience. FOA provides free online self-study courses at Fiber U for the knowledge part to prepare you for FOA certification exams which you can also take online.

If you are an experienced field tech interested in certification, and FOA is the internationally recognized certifying body for fiber optics, you can find out more about the FOA "Work to Cert" program here.

If you are already a CFOT, FOA also offers many specialist certifications you can obtain based on your experience as a field tech. See what's available at
Fiber U.




fiberu.org

Fiber U "Basic Fiber Optics" Online Self-Study Course Now In Spanish

El curso de autoaprendizaje en línea "Fibra óptica básica" de Fiber U ahora en español

El sitio de aprendizaje en línea de FOA, Fiber U, tiene más de dos docenas de cursos de autoaprendizaje gratuitos sobre fibra óptica y cableado de instalaciones. Como era de esperar, el tema más popular es el curso "Fibra óptica básica", que se utiliza para iniciarse en la fibra óptica y como curso de preparación para realizar el examen de certificación FOA CFOT.

Ahora el curso básico de fibra óptica está disponible en español, utilizando el libro de texto FOA en español, la sección de la Guía en línea en español y la capacidad de YouTube para traducir subtítulos de video al español. El curso funciona exactamente como la versión en inglés con 10 lecciones, cada una con cuestionarios y una opción para tomar un examen de Certificado de finalización.

Para presentar el nuevo curso de español Fiber U, el examen Certificate of Completion es gratuito, así que dígaselo a sus contactos.

Curso Básico de Fibra Óptica de Fibra U en español.


New Fiber U Course: Fiber Characterization 

FOA has added a new course at Fiber U on Fiber Characterization. Fiber characterization is the process for testing long fiber cable plants for its ability for carrying high speed communications. With so many networks now operating at 100, 200, 400 or even 800 Gb/s, fiber characterization is important, especially on older fiber optic cable plants.The free Fiber U Fiber Characterization course is available in two forms, as a standalone Fiber U fiber Characterization Course with its own Fiber U Certificate of Completion and as a separate Lesson in the Fiber U Fiber Optic Testing course. This course is recommended for those studying for the FOA CFOS/FC Fiber Characterization certification.

Fiber U MiniCourses: Got An Hour Or Less? Learn Something New About Fiber Optics.

FOA has introduced a new type of Fiber U course, the MiniCourse, a free online course you could take in a short time, perhaps as you ate lunch at your desk or took a coffee break. The topics of these courses should explain what they are about, and these are all very important topics to fiber optic techs.

Fiber Optics In Communications  

How Optical Fiber Works 

Fiber Optic Network Restoration 

Fiber Optic Connector Identification

Fiber U Color Codes 

The Mysterious dB of Fiber Optics
 

Fiber Optic Cable Bend Radius

Fiber Optic Link Loss And Power Budgets

Fiber Optic Connector Inspection And Cleaning

Fiber Optic Media Conversion  

Fiber Optic Cable Midspan Access  

Reading An OTDR Trace  

Reference Cables For Testing

Fiber Optic Attenuators
 

The courses have two components, video lectures and readings, that are complementary. As usual there is a self-test to allow you to check your comprehension. As with other Fiber U courses if you desire, you can take a short test for a Fiber U Certificate of Completion that costs
only $10.

All these free courses and many more are available at Fiber U.



What Fiber Techs Don't Know -

What We Learn From FOA Certification Tests

As FOA moves more testing over to our digital online testing system at ClassMarker, we have access to more data about our testing, including what questions and topics on the tests are answered incorrectly most often. Having this data gives us an opportunity to evaluate the questions and how they are stated, but more importantly it allow us to help our instructors teach the subjects and us to change our curriculum and online courses to emphasize these particular topics. These are some of the topics that we have noticed are answered incorrectly more often in FOA and Fiber U tests.

Most of the questions missed are on testing.

1. OTDRs - particularly what information is in the OTDR trace.

2. The difference between dB and dBm

3. Loss budgets - both the concepts and doing the math

4. Insertion loss testing - single-ended or double ended for testing patchcords or cable plants, how to set 0dB references

5. Units of measure - fiber is measured in microns, wavelengths in nanometers, etc.

At FOA, we're working to add Fiber U MiniCourses on these topics and working with our schools to emphasize these topics in their classes.

If you are going to be taking a FOA certification course or test in the near future, these topics should be on your final exam study list.

What We Learn From Hands On Labs
We learn about students performance in hands-on labs from the feedback of our instructors and our own experiences too. One big problem is the use of hand tools. Growing up today, you learn how to use keyboards, mouses and touch screens, but decades ago, you also learned how to use basic hand tools. This is big enough of a problem that we're considering adding some video lessons on basic hand tools to prepare students for cable prep, termination and splicing that require the use of hand tools.


FOA Guide "Basics Of Fiber Optics" Now Available Online in Portuguese (6/2020)

FOA
                            Reference Guide to Fiber Optics book

FOA has now translated the Basics of Fiber Optics textbook in our Online Guide into Portuguese, joining Spanish and French translations. For those speaking Portuguese, we have the technical information and for schools we also have curriculum available.

Here is the FOA Guide in Portuguese, Spanish and French translations.


Time To Learn - Online

Some schools have been closed during the pandemic, so FOA has been working with them to create new online learning experiences that can in some cases lead to certification online. FOA certifications are still based on the KSAs - knowledge from the classroom, skills from the labs and abilities judged by instructors or proven by actual experience.

ZOOMing
Much of what we're doing benefits from the capabilities of "Zoom." Others have created videoconferencing apps, but none work so well, especially with limited bandwidth. We've seen remote labs that have an instructor showing students how to use the tools they were sent then watching them duplicate their actions. We have worked out methods to use Zoom to proctor FOA's online certification exams.

Blended Learning
While most FOA schools have suspended in-person training during this period, some are offering a "blended learning" option. That means that students sign up for a FOA certification course, take the classroom sessions on Fiber U with the assistance of a FOA certified instructor. Now online instruction can include reviewing the labs using the
Fiber U Basic Skills Labs, then when it's possible to attend classes at the school, complete the hands-on labs and take the FOA certification exam.

Online Remote Labs
Alternatively, some schools are experimenting with "remote labs," where the students get sent tool kits and components and labs are conducted by videoconferencing. Before the labs, the students may watch demos by their instructor on videoconferencing and/or review the relevant "virtual hands-on" lessons in the Fiber U
Fiber Optics Basic Skills Labs  so they will already know the steps in the exercises.
And Fiber U has the new Fiber U DIY Basic Skills Lab lesson with directions on how to purchase inexpensive tools online and use them to learn basic fiber optic skills. Videoconferencing allows the instructor to remotely monitor their work and provide help as needed. Contact the FOA for more information.

exam
FOA Zoom Exam Proctoring

Online Certification Testing
FOA has all its certification tests available online, both for use by our schools and by our direct "Work to Cert" applicants. All FOA certification tests require a proctor to oversee the applicant taking the exam. In this time of social distancing, getting a proctor can be difficult, so FOA now has procedures for online proctors administering the exam.
Contact the FOA for more information.
 
OJT - On-The-Job-Training
Many novices get a job and learn on the job. They usually have an experienced tech who helps them gain the knowledge and  learn the skills they need to perform their job. Thinking about this in relation to the 
FOA KSAs, the knowledge, skills and abilities needed by a fiber optic tech,  the tech will learn skills but not the basic knowledge that helps them understand the processes involved. FOA can offer help here with our
FOA's OJT-to-Cert Program, using our Fiber U online self-study programs. While the tech learns on the job, they become a Fiber U trainee, getting the knowledge they need, while working under their "mentor" at work. This is particularly good for contracting companies who need techs but do not have the usual training courses available. Interested in OJT programs? Click on the link below or contact FOA for more information.

FOA's OJT-to-Cert Program  
 

fiberu.org

FOA offers free online self-study programs at Fiber U. Many users are preparing for FOA certification programs - taking courses at our schools or using the "Work-to-Cert" program. Some of our schools are requiring Fiber U programs as prerequisites for their classroom courses so they can spend more time on hands-on activities.


FOA School Offers Toolkit With Online Training

Slayton tool
                    kit

Slayton Solutions (FOA Approved School #156) is offering a simple fiber optic tool kit that includes a 29-piece set of fiber optic tools and a power meter along with training videos and online instruction for only $499. 29 Piece Kit includes all tools and devices a technician needs to install fiber optic connectors and test optical power.  Information on the kit is available on YouTube. You can contact them for more information at  slaytonsolutions@sbcglobal.net or https://www.fiberopticsinstitute.com




Publications
/ Resources

FOA
                        Guide





Cross Reference To FOA Tech Materials
FOA has so much technical reference material, we created a cross reference guide to the textbooks, Online Guide and Fiber U courses, all the FOA technical information. Besides the textbooks, online Guide and Fiber U, each section of the Guide also includes links to the 100+ FOA videos available.

Cross Reference Guide to Textbooks, Online Guide and Fiber U


FOA Guide To Fiber Optic Workforce Development

To help those new to fiber optic workforce development, FOA has created a web page we call  "Fiber Optic Workforce Development."  In this page, we share what we have learned about the fiber optic workforce, who they are and how they learn their trade. We discuss what defines a fiber optic tech and how they should be certified.

Read the FOA Guide To Fiber Optic Workforce Development online.




Latest FOA Book: Fiber Broadband (Paperback and Kindle)

FOA Guide To Fiber BroadbandIn less than half a century, fiber optics has revolutionized communications and to a large extent, society in general. Broadband, what many today call high speed Internet access, has become a necessity for everyone, not a luxury. The technology that makes broadband possible is fiber optics, connecting the continents, cities, and just about everybody. Even fiber to the home (FTTH) brings broadband to hundreds of millions worldwide.

How did we get from an era when communications was making a telephone call or sending a telegram to today’s world where every piece of information – and misinformation – is available at the click of a mouse or touch on a screen? How did we get from a time when a phone was connected on copper wires to being able to connect practically anywhere on a handheld device with more computing power than was available to scientists and engineers only decades ago?

How does broadband work? Without fiber optics it would not work.

This book is not the typical FOA technical textbook - it is written for anyone who wants to understand fiber broadband or fiber optics or the Internet. It's also aimed at STEM teachers who want to include communications technology in their classes. This book will try to explain not only how fiber broadband works, but how it was developed. It is intended to be an introduction to communications technology appropriate for a communications course at almost any level (junior high, high school or college,) for managers involved with broadband projects, or for anyone who just wonders how all this stuff works.

The Fiber Optic Association Guide To Fiber Broadband  

Paperback ($12.95) and Kindle ($9.95) versions available from Amazon or most booksellers. Kindle version is in color!



More Translations of FOA Textbooks

Guia de Referência sobre Fibra Óptica da FOAFOA is a very international organization and it works hard to accommodate the language needs of everyone. We have been translating our books and website into the languages most requested, and this month, we add two more textbook translations. We also want to thank Jerry Morla, FOA CFOS/I instructor and Director who has been doing the recent translations into Spanish, his native language.


Here is a listing of all the FOA textbook Translations

Spanish Editions:

Guía de Referencia de la Asociación de Fibra Óptica (FOA) Sobre Fibra Óptica: Guía de estudio para la certificación de la FOA  Amazon
La Referencia de Cableado para Predios de la FOA: Guía para Certificación de la FOA   Amazon
La Asociación de Fibra Óptica Manual de Fibra Hasta el Hogar : Para Planificadores, Gestores, Diseñadores, Instaladores y Operadores De FTTH  Amazon
Guía de Referencia de la FOA sobre Diseño de la red de fibra óptica: Guía de Estudio para la Certificación de la FOA Amazon

And the FOA Reference Guide To Fiber Optics:
French Edition: Le Guide de référence de la FOA pour la fibre optique et et guide d'étude pour la certification FOA: Guide d'étude pour la certification FOA  Amazon
Portuguese Edition: Guia de Referência sobre Fibra Óptica da FOA : Guia de Estudo para a Certificação da FOA  Amazon

The subject matter of these books is also translated in the FOA Guide online.



Planning A Fiber Optic Project?

The FOA Guide To Fiber Optic Projects includes this timeline and comments on project planning and implementation.



More New FOA Video Lectures On YouTube

Did you know YouTube will close caption videos in many languages? Here are directions.

FOA Lecture 73, The History of Fiber Optics - A Timeline fiber optics from the beginning.

FOA YouTube Video Describes On-The-Job Training (OJT) 

FOA Lecture 67 Fiber Optics At Electrical Utilities  

More New Videos Including FTTH Series

Like all our YouTube lectures, they are all short and easy to understand.



Did you know YouTube will close caption videos in many languages?

YouTube
                      translations
Sign in with Google to get translations for closed captioning. Click on the settings icon (red arrow.) Choose "Subtitles".  English is the default language. Click on the arrow after "English (auto-generated) >". In the new window click on "Auto-translate" and choose the language you want. 

FOA Loss Budget Calculator On A Web Page 5/2020

FOA has written many articles about loss budgets, something everyone involved in fiber optics needs to know and needs to know how to calculate. We recently discovered how to get a spreadsheet ported to a Web page, so we created this web page that calculates loss budgets. We have an iOS loss budget app, but with this web page, you can calculate loss budgets from any device, smart phone, tablet, laptop, or desktop computer that has web browsing capability.

FOA Loss Budget Calculator 

Bookmark this page (especially on your smartphone): FOA Loss Budget Calculator Online




FOA
                      Guide We are continually updating the Online Reference Guide to keep up with changes in the industry and adding lots of new pages of technical information. When you go to the FOA Guide Table of Contents to see the latest updates - look for New.

Recent updates:


FTTH Updates: Added a section on FTTH Network Design, updated Architecture and PONs (10G)
Color Codes For Fiber Optics   Includes print your own pocket guide and versions for your smartphone.

Fiber Optic Projects - the FOA Guide to projects from concept to operation
 

Coherent Communications Systems in the FOA Guide.

Go to  The FOA Online Fiber Optic Reference Guide.


FOA Reference Books



FOA FTTH                          Handbook

FOA's FTTH Handbook:
We've gathered all our information on FTTH from the FOA Guide and past issues of the FOA Newsletter and edited it into a 112 page "FTTH Handbook." We even added a section on planning and managing FTTH Projects.
The Fiber Optic Association Fiber To The Home Handbook is available from Amazon in print and Kindle editions.

FTTH Handbook in Spanish

Sitio web y manual de FTTH ahora en español


Sitio web y manual de FTTH ahora en español - FTTH Website And Handbook Now In Spanish

El Manual FOA FTTH se ha convertido en el libro FOA más vendido y tiene una calificación de 4.7/5 por parte de los compradores en Amazon.

FOA ha notado mucho interés en FTTH en otras áreas del mundo, especialmente en América Central y del Sur, por lo que tradujimos el sitio web de FTTH y el Manual de FTTH al español.

Available in paperback from Amazon or ebook on Amazon Kindle.
Disponible como libro de tapa blanda en Amazon o como libro electrónico en Amazon Kindle.  
El sitio web de FOA FTTH ahora en español.  

El Manual FOA FTTH se ha convertido en el libro FOA más vendido y tiene una calificación de 4.7/5 por parte de los compradores en Amazon.

FOA ha notado mucho interés en FTTH en otras áreas del mundo, especialmente en América Central y del Sur, por lo que tradujimos el sitio web de FTTH y el Manual de FTTH al español.


Disponible como libro de tapa blanda en Amazon o como libro electrónico en Amazon Kindle.  

El sitio web de FOA FTTH ahora en español.  


FOA Reference Guide to Fiber Optics book FOA
                        text in Spanish FOA Text in French FOA Reference Guide to Premises Cablng
                          book  FOA Reference Guide to OSP Fiber Optics
                          book   FOA
                        Reference Guide to Fiber Optic OSP Construction
                        book  FOA
                        Reference Guide to Fiber Optics Design book FOA Reference Guide to Fiber Optics Testing
                        book  FOA
                        Reference Guide to Fiber Optic OSP Construction
                        book
Fiber Optics (4 languages), Premises Cabling, OSP fiber and construction, Network Design, Testing and FTTH

   The FOA has it's own reference books for everyone working in fiber optics - contractors, installers and end users as well as for use as textbooks in classes at educational institutions. They are available as printed books or Kindle at much lower prices than most textbooks since we self-publish and sell online, cutting out the middlemen. Click on the book images for more information. The Reference Guide To Fiber Optics is also available in Spanish, French and Portuguese. The Design book is available in English and Spanish.

Click on any book for more information about it.

FOA has reprinted

Lennie Lightwave
"
Lennie Lightwave's Guide" on its 25th anniversary in a special print edition.
 
Lennie and Uncle Ted's Guides are online or as free iBooks on iTunes.
Lennie
                        Lightwave's Guide To Fiber Optics   Uncle
                        Ted's Guide to Premises Cablling
Click on any of the books to learn more.

Fiber Optic Safety Poster to download and print

Resources For Teachers In K-12 And Technical Schools
Teachers in all grades can introduce their students to fiber optic technology with some simple demonstrations. FOA has created a page for STEM or STEAM (science, technology, engineering, arts and math) teachers with materials appropriate to their classes. Fiber Optic Resources For Teachers.

 


Safety


On Safety

The FOA is concerned about safety!
FOA considers safety an integral part of all our programs, curriculum materials and technical materials. We start all our textbooks and their online versions with a section on safety in the first chapter, like this: Before we get started - Safety First!
 
There are pages on the FOA Guide on Safety procedures Including Eye Safety  and. Digging Safely 

And a YouTube lecture: FOA Lecture 2: Safety When Working With Fiber Optics
 
In our OSP Construction Section, these pages cover many safety issues including those related to the construction of the cable plant: Project Preparation And Guidelines, Underground Cable Construction, Underground Cable Installation and Aerial Cable Installation.
 
There is even a safety poster for the fiber activities: PDF Safety Rules For Fiber Optics
 
Other Safety Resources:

There is a toll-free "call before you dig" number in the USA: Dial 811. See www.call811.com for more information in the US. Here is their map of resources by states.

In Canada, it's "Click Before You Dig.com" They also have a page of resources by US states and Canadian provinces.

The Common Ground Alliance has an excellent "Best Practices Guide" online

The US Department of Transportation has a website called "National Pipeline Mapping System" that allows one to search for buried pipelines.   

Why We Warn You To Be Careful About Fiber Shards
fiber in
                      finger
Photo courtesy  Brian Brandstetter,  Mississauga Training Consultantcy

Safety Leader Magazine

Safety Leader
                      Magazine

Safety Leader, a new quarterly magazine, informs and educates electrical contractors on safety from various angles—electrical, workplace, PPE, regulations, leadership, line work, NFPA 70E, and more. Safety Leader is bundled with ELECTRICAL CONTRACTOR in February, May, August and November. To receive Safety Leader subscribe to ELECTRICAL CONTRACTOR magazine here or subscribe to the ELECTRICAL CONTRACTOR newsletter here.


2023 Conference On Damage Prevention In Tampa
Safety Conference

Global Excavation Safety Conference

Tampa, Florida
February 14-16, 2023

GlobalExcavationSafetyConference.com:

 
dpPro

The magazine, dp-Pro, sponsor of the conference, has also published it's latest issue with an article by FOA on "New Construction Techniques in Fiber Optics" and a overview of the FOA. You can read the magazine here.



When You Bury Marker Tape, Bury One That Will Work (July 2021)

Signaltape

Signaltape® provides a visual warning by ensuring tape is brought to the surface, alerting the operator to the presence of a buried utility. It includes a 3,000-lb. tensile strength aramid fiber membrane, which ensures the tape is pulled to the surface to alert the excavation crew. Signaltape comes in two sizes: 12″ x 1000′ or 6″ x 1000′.



FOA Corporate Members - Products & Services

List of corporate member information provided by FOA corporate members listed on the FOA website.





FOA/About


About The FOA

Contact Us:  http://www.foa.org or email <info@foa.org>





FOA on LinkedIn


FOA has a company page and four LinkedIn Groups


FOA - official company page on LinkedIn
 
FOA - covers FOA, technology and jobs in the fiber optic marketplace

FOA Fiber Optic Training - open to all, covers fiber optic technology and training topics


Grupo de La Asociación de Fibra Óptica FOA (Español)  



What is The FOA? 

The FOA is a, international non-profit educational association chartered to promote professionalism in fiber optics through education, certification and standards. 

Founded in 1995 by a dozen prominent fiber optics trainers and  leaders from education, 
industry and government as a professional society for fiber optics and a source of independent certification, the FOA has grown to now being involved in numerous activities to educate the world about fiber optics and certify the workers who design, build and operate the world's fiber optic networks.

Read More  

FOA History  

FOA Timeline of Fiber Optics  


Contact Us
The Fiber Optic Association Inc.
https://www.foa.org or email <info@foa.org>
https://www.thefoa.org or email <info@thefoa.org>
Telephone/text: 760-451-3655

The FOA Home Page


FOA Guide
Want to know more about fiber optics? Study for FOA certifications? Free Self-Study Programs are on "Fiber U®." Looking for specific information? Here's the largest technical reference on the web: The FOA Online Fiber Optic Reference Guide.

fiberu.org

Free online self-study programs on many fiber optics and cabling topics are available at Fiber U, FOA's online web-based training website.


 

Contact Us
The Fiber Optic Association Inc.
http://www.foa.org or email <info@foa.org>
Phone: 1-760-451-3655

       
The FOA Home Page











Fiber Optic Timeline  








(C)1999-2022, The Fiber Optic Association, Inc.


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New FOA Swag! Shirts, Caps, Stickers, Cups, etc.
FOA T Shirt
The FOA has created a store on Zazzle.com offering lots of new logo merchandise. It has lots of versions of shirts and other merchandise with "FOA," "Fiber U," "Lennie Lightwave" designs and more so you should find something just for you! See FOA on Zazzle.
 

Your Name, CFOT® - It pays to advertise!

The FOA encourages CFOTs to use the logo on their business cards, letterhead, truck or van, etc. and provides logo files for that purpose. But we are also asked about how to use the CFOT or CFOS certifications. Easy, you can refer to yourself as "Your Name, CFOT" or "Your Name, CFOS/T" for example.

Feel free to use the logo and designations to promote your achievements and professionalism!

Contact FOA at info@thefoa.org to get logos in file format for your use.



Privacy Policy (for the EU GDPR): The FOA does not use cookies or any other web tricks to gather information on visitors to our website, nor do we allow commercial advertising. Our website hosts may gather traffic statistics for the visitors to our website and our online testing service, ClassMarker, maintains statistics of test results. We do not release or misuse any information on any of our members except we will confirm FOA certifications and Fiber U certificates of completion when requested by appropriate persons such as employers or personnel services.
Read the complete FOA Privacy Policy here.